For art lovers, aspiring chefs and those who wish to see the world, the French major and minor offer preparation in language, literature, culture, film and opportunities for study abroad. Our undergraduate program features a rich variety of courses for students interested in studying French in relationship to philosophy and politics as well as to the sciences and the arts. Our summer, semester and year-long study abroad programs in Nice, Toulouse, Paris and Dakar enable students to deepen their understanding and appreciation of French culture by taking courses in the French university system, living with French families, shadowing doctors in French hospitals, holding internships in French businesses, and traveling extensively. Such experiences are the perfect preparation for careers in international business, international medicine, international law, and international relations or diplomacy.

We also provide our students with a range of linguistic, analytical and theoretical tools necessary for a comprehensive understanding and appreciation of French and Francophone literature and culture, to prepare them for a variety of careers or further study. French majors who plan to apply to professional schools or to pursue graduate studies in literature, philosophy, history, art history, music, film, anthropology or other related fields are strongly encouraged to pursue independent research in their senior year. Writing a Senior Honors thesis provides students with a unique opportunity to combine the study of French language, literature and culture with their other interests and to work closely with a member of our faculty. Our faculty takes an active interest in our students, providing support and encouragement throughout their studies in order to prepare them to become dynamic, conscientious and informed members of today's global community.

We are pleased to offer our students an ongoing series of lectures, films and artistic performances, as well as a weekly French table, which all contribute to the intellectually dynamic and personally rewarding social environment of our section. We also regularly invite scholars of international repute to speak or teach on campus and host international colloquia that attract scholars from around the world.

Contact:Professor Julie E. Singer
Phone:314-935-8223
Email:jesinger@wustl.edu
Website:http://rll.wustl.edu

The Major in French

Total units required: 30 (27 for second majors)*

Required courses:

French 307DFrench Level 4: Advanced French3
French 308DFrench Level 5: Introduction to Literary and Cultural Analysis3
French 325French Literature I: Dramatic Voices: Poets and Playwrights3
French 326French Literature II: Narrative Voices: Fiction and Nonfiction3
French 411Intensive Writing in French3
or French 4131 Advanced French and Translation
French 4xxUpper-level seminar before the Revolution (Medieval, Renaissance, 17th- or 18th-century)
French 4xxUpper-level seminar after the Revolution (19th- or 20th-century or Francophone)

*Students who take French 201D at the university may count it as one course toward the major (out of nine for the second or 10 for the prime). Students also may count one 3-credit course toward the major that is taught in English by a member of the French faculty either within or beyond the bounds of the department at Washington University. This course must be at the 300 level or above and does not replace the requirements in French.

Additional Information

Students must maintain an average of B- or better. Both 400-level courses required for the major must be taken at Washington University. All primary majors must complete a capstone experience by achieving a B+ or better in one of the 400-level seminars.

Study Abroad: French majors are encouraged to participate in a study abroad program. Summer programs are available in Paris, Nice and Senegal, and semester abroad programs are available in Toulouse and Paris. Up to 6 credits from each program can count toward the major. We strongly recommend that students who spend a semester in Toulouse or Paris take French 318D before going abroad. Students spending a semester abroad may take French 318D instead of French 308D. Any student who completes French 318D and does not go abroad should take French 308D as well.

Please refer to the Romance Languages home page for more information about French study abroad programs.

Senior Honors: Students who have maintained at least a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.65 through the end of the junior year are encouraged to work toward Latin Honors (cum laude, magna cum laude, summa cum laude). To qualify for Latin Honors in the major by thesis, a student must complete special literary research and prepare and orally defend an Honors thesis, which is judged by an Honors faculty committee. To qualify for Latin Honors by course work, a student must complete four literature courses at the 400 level, including two in literature before 1800, and present two critical essays written for those courses to be judged by an Honors faculty committee. Recommendations for Honors are based on performance and the quality of the thesis or critical essays, plus the student's cumulative grade point average.

Transfer Credits: 21 of the 30 units required for the major must be taken in residence. Courses not taken at Washington University may count toward the major only with departmental permission.

The Minor in French

Total units required: 21*

Required courses:

French 307DFrench Level 4: Advanced French3
French 308DFrench Level 5: Introduction to Literary and Cultural Analysis3
French 325French Literature I: Dramatic Voices: Poets and Playwrights3
or French 326 French Literature II: Narrative Voices: Fiction and Nonfiction

Elective courses:

French 215Conversation, Culture, Communication 1: Pop Culture3
French 216Conversation, Culture, Communication 2: French Culture Through French Film3
French 311CFrench Culture and Civilization: the New Face of France3
French 318DPreparation for Year in France3
French 321Topics I (Interdisciplinary course, subject changes yearly)3
French 376CCinema and Society3
French 4xxUpper-level writing-intensive courses and seminars (if prerequisites satisfied)

*Students who take French 201D at the university may count it as one course toward the minor (out of seven). Students also may count one 3-credit course toward the minor that is taught in English by a member of the French faculty either within or beyond the bounds of the department at Washington University. This course does not replace the requirements in French.

*Only one conversation course, taken at home (French 215 or French 216) or abroad, can count toward the minor.

Additional Information

Six credits can count toward the minor from the French for Pre-Medicine program in Nice. Literature and Medicine, a survey course offered at the Pre-Medicine program in Nice, can replace French 325 or French 326.

We strongly recommend that students who spend a semester in Toulouse or Paris take French 318D before going abroad. Students spending a semester abroad may take French 318D instead of French 308D. Any student who completes French 318D and does not go abroad should take French 308D as well.

Courses taken credit/no credit do not count toward the minor. Students must complete courses taken for the minor with a grade of B- or above and are expected to maintain a B average or better in all French courses.

Visit online course listings to view semester offerings for L34 French.


L34 French 1011 Essential French 1 Workshop

Application of the curriculum presented in French 101D. Pass/Fail only. Grade dependent on attendance and participation. Limited to 12 students. Students must be enrolled concurrently in French 101D.

Credit 1 unit. A&S: LA EN: H


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L34 French 101D French Level 1: Essential French 1

This first course in the French language stresses rapid acquisition of spoken French, listening comprehension, reading and writing skills. It is designed to immerse students as much as possible into French language and culture. The five-day-a-week course is taught in French to impart communicative competence through the acquisition of everyday grammar and vocabulary. The textbook works with a feature-length French film in order to create a meaningful and culturally relevant context for the grammatical and thematic structures studied. While not required, it is strongly recommended that students enroll in French 1011, a one-credit, pass-fail practice session.

Credit 5 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD, LS BU: HUM


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L34 French 1021 Essential French 2 Workshop

Application of the curriculum presented in French 102D. Pass/fail only. Grade dependent on attendance and participation.

Credit 1 unit. A&S: LA EN: H


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L34 French 102D French Level 2: Essential French 2

This second course in the French language program focuses on more advanced language skills to stress further rapid acquisition of spoken French, listening comprehension, reading and writing skills. It is designed to immerse students as much as possible into French language and culture. The five-day-a-week course is taught in French to impart communicative competence through the acquisition of everyday grammar and vocabulary. The textbook works with a feature-length French film in order to create a meaningful and culturally relevant context for the grammatical and thematic structures studied. While not required, it is strongly recommended that students enroll in French 1021, a 1-credit, pass/fail practice session. Prerequisite: French 101D or equivalent (often recommended for students with two to three years of high school French [seventh and eighth grades counting as one year]).

Credit 5 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD, LS BU: HUM


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L34 French 1051 Advanced Elementary French Practice Session

Application of the curriculum presented in French 102D or French 105D. For students with two to four years of high school French. Pass/fail only. Grade dependent on attendance and participation.

Credit 1 unit. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD


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L34 French 1052 Advanced Elementary French Workshop

Working vocabulary for the Institute taught to emphasize real-life situations abroad. Only for students who have completed French 102D and 105D and who plan to attend French Summer Language Institute. Credit/no credit.

Credit 1 unit. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD EN: H


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L34 French 105D Advanced Elementary French

This course provides an intensive, five-day-a-week review of elementary French, covering in one semester the entire French 101-102 program. It is designed to immerse students as much as possible into French language and culture. The course is taught in French to impart communicative competence through the acquisition of everyday grammar and vocabulary. The textbook works with a feature-length French film in order to create a meaningful and culturally relevant context for the grammatical and thematic structures studied. While not required, it is strongly recommended that students enroll in French 1051 (01), a 1-credit, pass/fail practice session. This course is often recommended for students with three years of high school French.

Credit 5 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD BU: HUM


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L34 French 201D French Level 3: Intermediate French

An intermediate review course with multiple goals: independent and accurate oral and written communication; comprehension of a variety of French and Francophone materials; review of grammar functions; communicative activities. Prerequisite: French 102D or the equivalent (usually recommended for students with four years of high school French [seventh and eighth grades count as one year]).

Credit 5 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD, LS BU: HUM


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L34 French 202 French Level III At the Summer Institute

This Summer Institute course focuses on the major features of French 201D. Students improve speaking, writing and reading skills in French by combining study of grammatical forms with exercises designed to mirror many experiences they encounter while in France. The location abroad and contact with French host families and other French people facilitate the student's learning experience. Students enrolled in this course also take French 353 and are prepared to enroll in French 307D upon their return to St. Louis. Open only to students attending the Summer Institute in France. Prerequisite: French 102D or 105D.

Credit 3 units. BU: IS


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L34 French 215 Conversation, Culture, Communication 1: Pop Culture

The course examines popular culture through a focus on what is said and performed, viewed especially but not exclusively through French film. Five thematic units focus on everyday occurrences and themes that mark both French and Francophone experience: the intersection of French History with the lives of ordinary people; the role of the French family in modern life; the motto of the French Revolution and how it applies today; the notions of community and the individual in modern French and Francophone society; the role of the French in the world at large. Active student participation is required; student is required to do at least two oral presentations on the films we see, and in some of the versions, to make their own film. An optional film-viewing is scheduled from 2 to 4 p.m. Fridays. Prerequisite: French 201D or the equivalent; may be taken before or after French 216.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD BU: ETH


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L34 French 216 Conversation, Culture, Communication 2: French Culture Through French Film

This course enables students to pursue their exploration of French culture through French film. Though not a history of French cinema, it introduces some of France's most celebrated actors and directors. We focus on excerpts that illustrate important life themes, including childhood, coming of age, existential crises, the search for happiness, the need for laughter, the threat of crime and violence, the complexities of love, and attitudes toward death. Students are asked to contrast their expectations of how such themes are to be treated with the way in which the French choose to portray them. Students write film reviews as though they were, alternately, an American or a French critic. As a final project, they write their own screenplay and imagine how it might be filmed in France. By the end of the course they have begun to view French culture with a French eye. Prerequisite: French 201D or the equivalent; may be taken before or after French 215.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD BU: ETH


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L34 French 247 Freshman Seminar

Taught in English. Small group seminar devoted to readings and study of other texts such as films, paintings, etc., discussion, writing. Topics vary; interdisciplinary focus. Prerequisite: AP in English, French or History, or permission of the instructor. Does not substitute for any other French course.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD BU: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 250C Voyages and Discoveries: French Masterpieces

Taught in English. Novels and short stories about voyages and discoveries — real and symbolic — where young people confront themselves and crises in their lives. A discussion course with short writing assignments and viewing of films of several works studied. Masterpieces selected from writers such as Voltaire, Balzac, Flaubert, Maupassant, Gide, Colette, Camus, Sartre, Duras and Ernaux, among others. No French background required; students who have completed the English Composition requirement are welcome.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM BU: HUM


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L34 French 257 From Champagne to Champlain: French Culture in North America

Taught in English. Following Champlain's founding in 1604 of the first French settlement in Nova Scotia (formerly Acadia), the French began to build what they hoped would be a vast empire, from Quebec to the Gulf of Mexico. Over the next 200 years, French culture and language spread throughout North America and could well have been the dominant one in this country had history moved in different directions. This course examines the history, literature, religion, architecture, music and cuisine of the vast territory known as "New France." Through use of conventional textual documents, as well as films, slides, CDs and field trips to Missouri historical sites, it exposes the student to the continuing richness of French culture all around us. Drawing on local resources (e.g., Fort de Chartres, Cahokia Courthouse and Sainte Genevieve), students learn about many fundamental connections between America and France. Topics include early explorations, Jesuit missions, literary representations of the New World, colonial architecture, the French and Indian War, the Louisiana Purchase, Cajun and Mississippian culture.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH BU: ETH


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L34 French 299 Undergraduate Independent Study

Prerequisites: French 201D and permission of the director of undergraduate study.

Credit variable, maximum 3 units.


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L34 French 307D French Level 4: Advanced French

Thorough review of French grammar with an emphasis on written and oral communication grounded in cultural context. Development of vocabulary and communicative skills through readings and films. Essential for further study of French language and literature. Three class hours per week. Prerequisite: French 201D or the equivalent (usually recommended for students with five years of high school French [7th and 8th grades count as one year]).

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD, LS BU: HUM


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L34 French 308D French Level 5: Introduction to Literary and Cultural Analysis

In this course we explore French literature and culture through a broad range of texts, including short stories, films, songs, poems and theatre. Development of creative and analytical writing skills in preparation for upper-level French courses. Should be taken before French 325C or French 326C. Prerequisite: French 307D or the equivalent.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD, LS Art: HUM BU: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 318D Preparation for Year in France

Designed to prepare students for the experience of studying abroad (for either a year or a semester, on Washington University-sponsored or -approved programs), this course emphasizes improved oral discussion and writing skills through readings, papers, language lab practice and active class participation. The course provides an introduction to the techniques of explication de texte, commentaire compose and dissertation litteraire. The class discusses various aspects of modern French society as well as topics related to the student's experience abroad, such as the university system, the French family, French social mores, etc. May replace French 308D for candidates attending semester and year abroad programs in a French-speaking country. Required for students planning to study in Toulouse and Paris and recommended for other programs in France.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD, LS BU: IS


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L34 French 321 Topics I

Focusing on topics of cultural and social importance, this course offers students the opportunity to learn about defining moments in the French tradition. The specific topic of the course varies from semester to semester and may include works from different disciplines, such as art, film, gender studies, history, literature, music, philosophy, politics, science. Prerequisite: French 307D.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: HUM, LCD, LS BU: ETH


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L34 French 322 Topics II

Focusing on topics of cultural and social importance, this course offers students the opportunity to learn about defining moments in the French tradition. The specific topic of the course varies from semester to semester and may include works from different disciplines, such as art, film, gender studies, history, literature, music, philosophy, politics, science. Prerequisite: French 307D.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD BU: ETH


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L34 French 325 French Literature I: Dramatic Voices: Poets and Playwrights

An interpretation of cultural, philosophical and aesthetic issues as presented in influential works of French poetry and drama from the Middle Ages to the present. May be taken before or after French 326. Prerequisite: French 308D or French 318D.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD, LS Arch: HUM Art: HUM BU: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 3252 French out of France: Introduction to Francophone Literatures

An introduction to some of the "other" literatures in French: the literary traditions and cultural contexts of Francophone countries in North and sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Vibrant and productive cultures around the world have interacted with the French language and its literature to produce highly diverse texts of their own. We study some of them, focusing on issues like cultural adaptation, colonialism and "civilizing missions," and the responses to them. We also consider the varying meanings of the term "Francophone," from conservative to liberal, and think about its implications for the study of French literature as a whole. Finally, we examine the ways in which contemporary mainland France has been irrevocably transformed by the Francophone presence. Works by Kourouma, Césaire, Kateb and Lopes. Prerequisite: French 307D.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH BU: IS


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L34 French 326 French Literature II: Narrative Voices: Fiction and Nonfiction

An investigation of cultural, philosophical and aesthetic issues as presented in influential works of French prose from the Middle Ages to the present. May be taken before or after French 325. Prerequisite: French 308D or French 318D.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD, LS Arch: HUM Art: HUM BU: IS EN: H


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L34 French 350 Undergraduate Seminar in French Literature and Culture

An exploration of a variety of cultural icons, objects, myths and traditions that define the French experience throughout the centuries. Topics vary. Prerequisite: French 308.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM BU: HUM


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L34 French 352 French Institute Project

Students investigate an important aspect of French life by conducting interviews with French natives and by observing them at work. Supplementing this direct experience with further research, students prepare a presentation on their selected topic for the Institute participants and for their French hosts. Open only to students enrolled in the French Summer Institute.

Credit 2 units. A&S: LA


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L34 French 353 Project Plus

This Summer Institute course combines (1) a course that examines French culture as it is represented in the evocative history of French châteaux, the arts and contemporary lifestyle; (2) the student's project; and (3) the student's experiences as part of the community abroad (excursions, visits, group discussions). In class students gain background for appreciating the primary sites of the Institute: in the Loire Valley, Paris and Brittany. The classroom experience is discussion-oriented, with small writing assignments and readings. The project is an individual research program that students conduct with a French native on a particular aspect of French culture. In the past students have dealt with serious topics such as the deportation of the Jewish community in Amboise during World War II; with less grave subjects such as the work of a local wine grower or goat cheese producer, and the culinary repertoire of French and American families; and current topics concerning the political situation in Europe and the euro. Following weekly conferences with the teaching staff, students present a formal report on their experiences to an audience comprising other members of the group and the students' host families. Students at the Institute are expected to speak French in all group settings. Assignments in this course are level-appropriate (students enrolled in French 385 complete longer papers and projects than those enrolled in French 202; expectations for conversations are likewise adjusted accordingly). Required of all students attending the Summer Institute in France.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD EN: H


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L34 French 355 North American Francophone Literature in Translation

Taught in English. The world of French language and literature is not restricted to France alone. It includes several other countries and former colonies whose cultural traditions and productions have grown in global significance as the West has increasingly understood and reacted to its own prejudices and exclusions. This course, the first in a three-semester sequence, focuses on the literature of our closest French-speaking neighbors: French Canadians, Acadians (from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and northern Maine) and Louisiana Cajuns. That French is the main language of all these groups results, of course, from the early colonial history of North America. Representative writers of these different French-speaking groups, including Antonine Maillet, Gerald Leblanc, Zachary Richard, Philippe Hemon, Michel Tremblay and Marie-Clair Blais, are studied closely in their historical, literary and cultural contexts.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 364 Literature and Ethics: Out of Cruelty


Same as L16 Comp Lit 364

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM Art: HUM BU: ETH EN: H


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L34 French 370 French Social History

Studying L'Histoire des Mentalites, this course explores how the concept of sickness, the perception of medicine, the role of the doctor, etc,. evolved throughout the centuries. Texts are supplemented by a series of lectures offered by doctors in different specialties. Students complete a project on one area of related research. Open only to students enrolled in the Nice Pre-Med Summer Program.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM BU: BA EN: H


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L34 French 375C Biography of a City: Paris

This class has a dual focus: to trace the political and cultural history of Paris throughout the ages since its founding; to highlight Paris as a theme or topos in works of art and in the popular imagination. Thus, we examine both Paris' role as an important historical center as well as its function as a vital cultural symbol. Guest speakers from the departments of Romance Languages, Art History, History, Music, Philosophy and others. Course taught entirely in English.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM BU: IS


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L34 French 376C Cinema and Society

This course explores the history of French cinema through a lens that has long aroused passionate feelings in the francophone world: the social and psychological role of the (post)-industrial workplace. Exploring why the workplace has proved an engaging setting for French cinema, the class will study the Chaplinesque antics of the heroes of René Clair's À nous la liberté and the slapstick pathos of Jacques Tati's maladapted Monsieur Hulot. Students will also consider how film uses the workplace to dramatize society's differences and tensions, analyzing the tragic drama of social classes in Marcel Carné's La Règle du jeu and the sobering view of workplace reform in Laurent Cantet's Ressources humaines. The class will consider depictions of workers and bourgeois in the factories by the Lumière brothers (1895) and compelling performances of modern-day workers by Marion Cotillard (Deux jours, une nuit) and Omar Sy (Samba) in award-winning films from 2014. Our study of film will also address cultural differences between the U.S. and France as we consider the workplace in the context of globalization. There will be an optional extra session for group film viewing. Films will be on reserve in Olin. Prerequisite: French 307D. Taught in French.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD, LS Art: HUM BU: IS EN: H


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L34 French 383C Literature and Society: Ailing Body/Ailing Mind in French Autobiographical Writings

Illness and suffering have inspired a great variety of literary texts from the Middle Ages to the modern era. This course considers works ranging from Montaigne's influential Essais through contemporary novels that focus on autobiographical writings in which the author gives a personal account of their own direct experience with illness. Open only to students enrolled in the Nice Pre-Med program.

Credit 3 units. A&S IQ: HUM Art: HUM


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L34 French 385 Cultural Differences

By examining how the French perceive Americans and how the Americans perceive the French, students interrogate stereotypes, biases and differences in values, behaviors and beliefs between the two cultures. The class also examines the misunderstandings that occur as a result of these differences. Students also look within the American culture and within the French culture to evaluate how minorities and marginal groups exist within them. Texts include works by contemporary authors whose different professions (journalist, anthropologist, novelist, etc.) offer different perspectives on the questions of cultural difference. Open only to students enrolled in the Summer Institute in France. Prerequisite: French 307D.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 386 Topics: Paris and New York

Topics in Comparative Literature. Subject matter varies from semester to semester.
Same as L16 Comp Lit 385

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH, CD A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM BU: HUM


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L34 French 389 At Home in Paris, Versailles, Amsterdam, and Delft

Comparative study of a given question, theme or problem, such as eros or exile or cruelty.
Same as L16 Comp Lit 389

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM BU: IS


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L34 French 400 Intensive Translation for Graduate Students I

The first part of a two-semester course sequence in reading and translating French. For graduate students in the humanities, social and natural sciences. Nongraduate students may enroll with permission of the department. Must be followed by French 401.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD


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L34 French 401 Intensive Translation for Graduate Students II

Continuation of French 400. For graduate students in the humanities, social and natural sciences. Prerequisite: French 400; credit for French 400 is contingent on completion of French 401.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD


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L34 French 4013 Second Language Acquisition and Technology

This seminar, for undergraduate and graduate students, transforms research and theory about second language acquisition into practice while focusing on technology-driven applications. The course fosters professional development as participants formulate critical skills for evaluating, creating and integrating technology into the language classroom. Course formats include readings, discussions, and demonstrations with technologies. The course is now open to undergraduates. Graduate students can enroll whenever it suits their course planning. The course counts for the Graduate Certificate in Language Instruction and for the undergraduate minor in applied linguistics. This course carries the Social and Behavioral Sciences attribute and can be taken as an elective in several different programs.
Same as L12 Educ 4023

Credit 3 units. A&S: SS A&S IQ: SSC EN: S


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L34 French 411 Intensive Writing in French

Refinement and expansion of writing skills, mastering of complex grammatical structures and intensive training in the analysis of rhetorical issues are the goals of this course. It focuses on the acquisition of a personal style through creative exercises in composition, including the study of parody, autobiographical forms and short story writing, as well as the practice of formal explication de texte and dissertation. Students complete a series of short papers, each with required revisions. Meets WI requirement. Prerequisite: French 307D, French 308D or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Required for all majors except those who have spent two consecutive semesters in a French-speaking country. Required for master's candidates in French unless waived by director of graduate studies.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA, WI A&S IQ: LCD, LS, WI


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L34 French 4131 Advanced French and Translation

Building on the foundation established in the third year, this course aims at an in-depth knowledge of the French language and accuracy in its use. A comparative approach (linguistic and cultural) and systematic exercises are used to attain this goal and assist students in the demanding task of translating, both from English to French and from French to English. This course is mainly devoted to practical training using a wide range of document types, developing strategies of translation and sensitizing students to the problem of cultural transfer. Prerequisites: French 307D and French 308D or French 318D. Writing-intensive. May be taken in place of 411 toward the completion of the French major.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA, WI A&S IQ: LCD, LS, WI EN: H


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L34 French 413B Linguistics and Language Learning

The course, taught in English, provides a critical survey of various components involved in the relationship between linguistics and language learning. The course emphasizes the language learner and explores dimensions of second language acquisition. The course begins with an examination of linguistic theories and then highlights the influence of linguistic theories on L2 acquisition research. The course then moves to an exploration of research on language and the brain. With this foundation, the course covers both internal and external factors related to language acquisition, such as language aptitude, age, gender, memory, prior knowledge, etc. In summary, theoretical and research dimensions of both linguistics and language learning are treated. This course counts as a requirement for the Graduate Certificate in Language Instruction and for the undergraduate minor in applied linguistics. Prerequisite: Ling 170 is recommended but not required.
Same as L12 Educ 4111

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: SSC BU: BA EN: S


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L34 French 415 The 19th-Century Novel: From Realism to Naturalism to Huysmans

In this seminar we read some of the great realist novels of the 19th century, by the four masters of the genre: Balzac, Stendhal, Flaubert, Zola. We also examine Huysmans' A Rebours, which was written in reaction to the excesses of Realism. We determine what characterizes the realist novel and how it has evolved from Balzac to Zola. We consider its theoretical orientation, but we also focus on the major themes it addresses: the organization of French society throughout the 19th century, Paris vs. the province, love, money, ambition, dreams, material success, decadence, etc. Prerequisites: French 325 and 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 416 Renaissance Poetics

An examination of key authors and themes in various genres of the period. Prerequisite: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 4161 Special Topics in 19th-Century Literature

Prerequisite: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 417 Poetry and Prose of the Renaissance

During the Renaissance, poetry in France manifested a close relationship to the visual arts, sharing expressive means as well as ends. This course considers the main poetic and philosophical currents of the Renaissance with special emphasis on formal innovation. Poets studied include Clément Marot, Louise Labé, Maurice Scève, Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim Du Bellay, etc. The visual arts, mainly paintings from the 15th to the early 17th century, serve to elucidate poetic images, mythological references and philosophical concepts, and hopefully stimulate reflection on the relationship between the verbal and the visual. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 4171 Travel Abroad in Early Modern Times

This course addresses such questions as national identity; international relations; migration, cultural differences and integration; cultural interactions and influences. It concerns more specifically the important role humanism played in the spectacular development of vernacular languages and traveling abroad in Early Modern times. It is organized around the following themes: (1) Humanism, nationalism and the growing interest in the vernacular; (2) Humanism and the ongoing project of translation (translatio studii); (3) Humanism and travel abroad; (4) views on foreign cultures and one's own after returning home; (5) "La France" (including at least one session on Lyons and another on Italian artists living in France); and integration and conflicts. Readings include major authors (Rabelais, Montaigne, Marguerite de Navarre, Du Bellay) as well as lesser-known figures (Pasquier, Lery, Thevet), diaries and travelogues. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 4172 Travel in the Renaissance and the Literature of Discovery

Improved modes of transportation under King Francis I facilitated travel in the Renaissance. Men and women were able to view famous cultural monuments on their continent and explore parts of the world where no one had ventured before, returning home with vivid tales of distant lands and exotic peoples. With the advent of the printing press, such fascinating stories were made available to a wider audience. This course examines this literature of discovery, paying special attention to the multiple genres that flourished at the time (historical narratives, diaries, correspondences, travelogues, elegiac poetry, adventure novels) as well as the historical and cultural contexts of these works. Other questions addressed include national identity and cultural differences, cultural interactions and influences, international relations, the impact of humanism, and the concept of curiositas. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Arch: HUM Art: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 4173 Renaissance Poetry and Visual Arts

During the Renaissance, poetry in France manifested a close relationship to the visual arts, sharing expressive means as well as ends. This course considers the main poetic and philosophical currents of the Renaissance with special emphasis on formal innovation. Poets studied include Clément Marot, Louise Labé, Maurice Scève, Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim Du Bellay, etc. The visual arts, mainly paintings from the 15th to the early 17th century, serve to elucidate poetic images, mythological references and philosophical concepts, and hopefully stimulate reflection on the relationship between the verbal and the visual. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units.


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L34 French 417B Literature of the 16th Century

Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD EN: H


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L34 French 4181 Humanism in Crisis: Marguerite de Navarre

The second half of the French 16th century was a time of profound upheaval in politics and religion, as well as of economic and social unrest. The very nature of reason and knowledge, their place and reliability were in serious question. These various "crises" culminated in what is known today as "the collapse of French Humanism." This course focuses on two writers of the mid-century, Marguerite de Navarre and Montaigne, and the solutions that they offered. Special attention is given to the forms of expression adopted by these writers in order to reflect the newly discovered complexity of their world. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 4182 Humanism in Early Modern France: From Rabelais to Montaigne

This course focuses on major aspects of Humanism as exemplified by two of the greatest writers of the 16th century: François Rabelais and Michel de Montaigne. Humanism designates the great intellectual movement of the Renaissance. Initially focused on the recovery of ancient authors and a renewed confidence in man's ability to grasp higher meanings, Humanism became a dynamic cultural program that influenced every aspect of 16th-century intellectual life. As the political and religious turmoil of the Reformation spread, however, Humanist assumptions (the very nature of reason and knowledge, their place and reliability) were in turn questioned. This "crisis" culminated in what is known today as "the collapse of French Humanism." We examine the importance of Humanism by focusing on the themes of education, self-inquiry, religion, gender roles, marriage, travel, health and medicine. We pay special attention to the forms of expression that Rabelais and Montaigne adopt to reflect the newly discovered complexity of their world. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 419 Feminist Literary and Cultural Theory

This course is intended to acquaint students with basic ideas and issues raised by a diversity of voices in contemporary feminist and cultural theory. Readings cover a wide range of approaches and tendencies within feminism, among them: French feminism, Foucauldian analyses of gender and sexuality, lesbian and queer theories, Third World/postcolonial feminism, and feminism by women of color. Given that feminist theories developed in response to and in dialogue with wider sociopolitical, cultural and philosophical currents, the course explores feminist literary and cultural theory in an interdisciplinary context. Note: This course is in the core curriculum for the Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies graduate certificate. Prerequisite: advanced course work in WGSS or in literary theory (300-level and above) or permission of the instructor.
Same as L77 WGSS 419

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM Arch: HUM Art: HUM


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L34 French 4191 The French Islands: From Code Noir to Condé

The French have been dreaming about the tropics ever since transatlantic trade became possible in the 16th century, and literature in French has reflected these dreams ever since. Closer to our own period, writers from the French Caribbean have written themselves into the French canon, winning prestigious literary prizes. This course links these two phenomena by studying literature from and about the tropics from the 18th century to the present. In our readings, we attempt to see the ways in which the literature from and about France's island possessions has contributed to the forming of cultural and political relations between France and the islands, but also among the islands and within the Americas. Almost all texts available in English for students not majoring in French; main seminar session taught in English with weekly undergraduate preceptorial in French. Prerequisite: French 325 and French 326. One-hour preceptorial for required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD EN: H


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L34 French 4192 Tragedy and Farce in African Francophone Literature

In 1960, most of the French colonies in Africa gained independence in a largely peaceful transfer of power. Since then, this development has been viewed alternatively as the triumph of self-determination and as a hollow act undermined by neocolonial French ministries, multinational companies and corrupt governments. Reading authors such as Chraibi, Kourouma, Kane, Tansi, and Lopes, we consider the ways that literature enters into dialog with political discourses that seem to call for tragic or farcical portrayal. This course explores the literary construction of nationalist opposition in colonial Africa and the subsequent disillusionment with its artificiality in tragic or farcical literature from the independence era to the present. Taught in French. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 4201 The Novel in the Feminine (Le Roman au feminin)

Informed through feminist criticism (Beauvoir, Cixous, Kristeva), this course examines the deconstruction of the novel as a traditional genre by 20th-century women writers such as Colette, Nathalie Sarraute, Marguerite Duras, Marguerite Yourcenar, Annie Ernaux and Mariama Bâ. We place special emphasis on the representation of the writing woman in the text itself and on the issue of "écriture féminine" in its sociocultural context. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 4202 Ingenues and Libertines: Writing the Feminine in 19th-Century French Prose

Informed by a close reading of theoretical texts dealing with the paradoxes of "la femme auteur" (the woman author), as Balzac coined it, this seminar explores the many ways of writing the feminine in the margins of 19th-century French fiction. Opposing "dames de cour" (ladies of the court) and "femmes de tête" (women of the mind), we focus on the representation of women as "voleuses de langue" (tongue snatchers) in the works of Mme de Staël, Claire de Duras, George Sand and Marie d'Agoult, among others. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 421 The 20th-Century Novel

In this seminar we examine the evolution of the French novel in the 20th century. We closely read five great novels, by Proust, Gide, Céline, Robbe-Grillet and Ernaux. We determine what characterizes the 20th-century French novel and how it has evolved from Proust to Ernaux. We consider its technical aspects but also focus on the major themes it addresses: love, art, memory, time, death and the general problem of the human condition. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 4211 The Novel of the 1930s: The Human Condition and the Meaning of Life

Most French novelists of the 1930s were no longer satisfied simply to entertain their readers, to bring formal innovations to their writing, to depict society or to represent human consciousness. Economic transformations, technological advances and the unspeakable horrors of World War I challenged traditional beliefs. Authors therefore dedicated themselves to examining the human condition and the meaning of life. In this seminar we read five major novels of the period by Saint-Exupéry, Mauriac, Malraux, Céline and Sartre. We determine how each author approaches the fundamental questions of human existence and what, if any, answers he provides. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 (or for students who have completed the Paris Business Program, completion of either course). One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 422 French Theater From 1800 to the Present

We study selected plays of Hugo, Musset, Feydeau, Jarry, Claudel, Giraudoux, Anouilh, with particular attention to Romanticism, Symbolism, Existentialism and absurdist drama. Close attention is paid to the sociopolitical, philosophical and aesthetic contexts within which these plays were written, performed and received by the public. Videos of selected scenes also are shown and serve as points of departure for several classroom discussions, as do various influential critical theories about the nature and structure of modern French theater. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 4221 19th- and 20th-Century French Novel

Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 423 Contemporary Theater

Readings, analysis and discussion of French theater from Sartre to the present. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 4231 Visualizing 19th-Century Poetry

At the very end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, Mallarmé and Apollinaire begin to compose seemingly original works that create a host of simultaneous and different meanings through a heightened use of what can be called the "concrete aspects" of the texts themselves: their layout on the page; the imagery they present; even the shape of the particular words and stanzas they employ. But a close reading of earlier 19th-century literature (mostly poetry) composed by various Romantic, Parnassian and Symbolist authors (Victor Hugo, Théophile Gautier, Mari Krysinska, Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud and Paul Verlaine) reveals that experimentation in the visualization (as opposed to "mere" reading or writing) of a literary work was already under way. The latter coincided with the evolution of sculpture, photography and, later on, cinema. This course is designed to introduce students to both the production and reception of such works, and to examine their multiple historical and aesthetic causes and effects. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 424 19th- and 20th-Century Poetry

Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD EN: H


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L34 French 425 19th-Century Poetry

Reading and analysis of poetry of the three major 19th-century schools: romantic, parnassian, symbolist. Emphasis on textual explication. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 426 Avant-Garde Poetry of the 20th Century

Study of French avant-garde poetic movement of the early 20th century, with emphasis on Futurism, Cubism, Dadaism and Surrealism. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 427 Literature of the 17th Century I

Undergraduates only register for this section. Prerequisite: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 4271 French Classical Theater

A study of works by Corneille, Molière and Racine. We consider how the theater contributes to the rise of absolutism in France in the 17th century. The depiction of kings and the role of primogeniture; the function of sacrifice; the marginalization of women; the glorification of Ancient Rome; Orientalism; tensions between family and state; and the rise of the bourgeoisie in these plays suggest how the dramas played out on stage mirror the historic spectacle of the court over the course of the century as it develops an increasingly centralized authority culminating in the image of an all-powerful Louis XIV. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 4281 Order in the Court: Classical Struggles During the Reign of Louis XIV

Beginning with a study of Versailles, we examine the spectacular dimensions of artistic production under Louis XIV, including architecture, visual arts and landscapes, in addition to literature. The recent historical novel L'allee du Roi, which details the romance between the king and his mistress and then second wife Mme. de Maintenon, and the Memoires of Saint-Simon help to set the stage for us to appreciate the intrigues at court. Situating the king at the head of a hierarchical and orderly court structure, we examine some of the less harmonious elements of court-dominated life offered in representations by Corneille (Surena), Molière (Les Femmes Savantes), Racine (Mithridate, Phedre), La Rochefoucauld, La Bruyère, La Fontaine, Mme. de Sévigné, Pascal. We consider the ways in which the court assures its power through primogeniture, the right of the eldest born son to inherit power, as well as through strict codes of etiquette and the generosity of the crown to its loyal and productive followers. We examine how these factors are insufficient to protect the monarchy against the contravening forces of political ambition, family struggles, the emerging role of women, religious faith and the devastating effects of war and disease. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 431 Literature of the 18th Century I

Prerequisite: French 325 or 326. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 4311 Voices of Dissent: Enlightenment Principle and Social Protest

The 18th century saw a rise in overtly moralizing texts, on the one hand, and unapologetically immoralist philosophies on the other. We focus on texts that avoid these extremes, allowing multiple voices to be heard. With the aid of excerpts from Genette, Bakhtine, Todorov and Barthes, we identify the voices of dissent in several 18th-century genres, including satire, the tale, the novella, the philosophical dialogue, theater, autobiography and the epistolary novel. By reading authors such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, Prévost, Diderot, Cazotte, Rousseau, Beaumarchais and Charrière, students come to appreciate a third tendency in 18th-century texts that is crucial to our understanding of the Enlightenment: the tendency to validate conflicting perspectives. We consider whether a moral can be derived from a text that consistently questions the voice of authority. We analyze the implications of such questioning in the years before the Revolution. Finally, we consider the extent to which the overzealous censorship laws of the period may have obliged authors to couch socially controversial ideas in narrative forms that seem to deny their own assertions. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 4321 Art, Revolution and Society

This course examines major 18th-century aesthetic treatises and literary texts that explore solutions for aesthetic quandaries. Authors include d'Alembert (Preface a l'Encyclopedie), Rousseau (Discours sur les Sciences et les Arts, Lettre a d'Alembert), Diderot (Entretiens sur le Fils Naturel, Le Paradoxe du Comedien, Le Neveu de Rameau), Cazotte (Le Diable Amoureux), Beaumarchais (Le Barbier de Seville, Le Mariage de Figaro), Staël (De la Litterature, Corinne). These works allow us to study some of the major insights into the aesthetics of music, painting and the performing arts with an eye to how these aesthetic "revolutions" expanded the scope and influenced the form of the French language and literary texts. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD EN: H


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L34 French 4331 Women of Letters

We investigate the representation of women in 18th-century texts. Why did the novel and epistolary fiction became so closely associated with women as writers, heroines and readers in the course of the century? Why were women considered exemplary and yet, at the same time, a threat? The 18th century saw the last of the salons led by women well-versed in philosophy, literature, art and politics. It saw the reinforcement of the opposition between the public and the private sphere. Woman was the incarnation of the ideal of liberty and yet excluded from the "rights of man." Rousseau praised women's role as nurturers and peacemakers but cast into doubt their capacity for genius. Literary texts that feature women became a sparring ground for two of the century's major literary trends: Sensibilite and Libertinage, for a woman's sensitivity was thought to contain the seeds of virtue and licentiousness. We investigate philosophical discourses on the senses and emotions and political discourses on republican responsibility. We read these texts in conjunction with the literary works of men and women authors, including Prévost, Marivaux, Graffigny, Riccoboni, Diderot, Rousseau, Charrière, Laclose, Sade and Staël. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 4341 Enlightenment Energy: Comedy, Eroticism and the Grotesque

In this course we examine works in which the comic, the erotic and the grotesque — base urges that 18th-century audiences deplored yet found entertaining — made inroads into the literature of the time. The Enlightenment was highly suspicious of impulses and intuitions that challenged or escaped the bounds of virtue, sentiment and reason. French philosophers debated whether genius lay in the supreme mastery or the spontaneous creation of art, whether talent was inborn or could be acquired through practice. Reading texts that span the long 18th century, by authors such as Molière, Marivaux, Crébillon fils, Voltaire, Diderot, Restif de la Bretonne, Beaumarchais, Sade and Hugo, we investigate how the satirical, the bawdy and the profane served as the wellspring of Enlightenment inspiration, giving rise to visions of an ideal society. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 4351 Philosophical Fictions

The French Enlightenment witnessed a veritable explosion of short fiction, including philosophical, oriental, moral and libertine tales bearing such self-conscious titles as A Thousand and One Follies and This is Not a Tale. Though written by the literary elite and not considered children's literature, the genre enjoyed widespread popular appeal and had the power to shape mentalities. Often satirical in tone, these tales served to convey and question contemporary political, philosophical, scientific, religious and moral trends. They inspired some of the most vivid illustrations of the day and were often circulated as part of the literary underground. We read works by Crebillon fils, Voltaire, Diderot, Cazotte, Charrière, Sade and Staël alongside excerpts from French cultural history on 18th-century mentalities, salons and print culture. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD EN: H


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L34 French 436 Romanticism

This course studies pre-Romantic themes in the works of Madame de Staël and Chateaubriand and of their evolution in the poems of Lamartine, Musset and Vigny, the theater of Victor Hugo, and the novels of George Sand and Victor Hugo. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of a "littérature du moi" (literature of the self), the redefinition of the place of the artist in society after "la bataille romantique," and the stylistic innovations that lead to "modernism." Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 4391 Classicism/A-Classicism

Among the hallmarks of 17th century, French classicism celebrated reason, order, balance and a power often associated with the great achievements of Ancient Greece and Rome. Reason, however, coexisted with dreams and madness; order encountered threats both political and sexual; disharmony persisted despite longings for justice; and depictions of Antiquity flourished alongside those of the Orient, the exotic other world of the East. The course explores these "a-classicisms," or countervailing forces, by studying the challenges that ground the struggles and seductions in dramas by Corneille, Molière and Racine as well as in the novels of Madame de Lafayette. We read Graffigny's Lettres d'une Peruvienne, Prévost's Manon Lescaut, Laclos' Liaisons Dangereuses to understand classicism retrospectively, through the "a-classicism" of the 18th century's treatment of identity, alienation, desire and societal tensions. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 4392 Commemorating the King

The court of Louis XIV at Versailles was remarkable for its grandeur, its consolidation of power and its celebration of the Sun King. Arguably, all aspects of court life were regulated by the crown and all things produced — whether wars or monuments; art or science; novels or histories — were tributes to the king. All reflected a certain "ideology of commemoration," that is, an implicit or explicit validation of the monarch's privilege and prestige, both for his contemporaries and for posterity. We explore how authors (including Louis XIV, La Bruyère, La Rochefoucauld, Perrault, La Fontaine), artists (Lebrun, Rigaud, Poussin, Félibien) and historiographers/memorialists (Racine, Saint Simon) support the ambitions of the crown through their works. Modern critics Elias, Marin, Burke and Merlin guide our research into the activities of the royal family, the ideology of absolutism and the role of art in affirming the power of Versailles as we continue to memorialize it through surviving texts, monuments and images. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 440 Parnassian and Symbolist Literature

This course offers an examination of key writers and texts of the Parnassian and Symbolist schools of the 19th century. Readings include poetry, drama and prose. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 441 From Symbolism to Surrealism

This course presents a survey of major French dramatic works from the late 1800s to the mid-20th century, including both innovative plays and theoretical treatises by celebrated writers such as Maeterlinck, Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Jarry, Apollinaire, Breton, Vitrac and Artaud. It examines how in running contrary to other important movements of their general time period (e.g., Romanticism, Realism, Naturalism) these works constitute major examples of what will come to be widely known as Modernism. Attention will also be paid to the ways in which these types of plays gave rise to later forms of theater, like those found in Existentialism and the Théâtre de l'Absurde. Prerequisite: French 325 or Fr 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM Art: HUM


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L34 French 443 Contemporary Francophone Literature

A general survey of Francophone literature. This course examines representative texts of Quebec, "Acadia," Africa and West Indies. Authors to include Antonine Maillet, Louis Hémon, Michel Tremblay, Gérard Leblanc, Anne Hébert, Maryse Condé, along with the influential poets of "négritude," Senghor and Césaire. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 444 Modern Francophone Poetry

The first half of this course consists of close readings of the founders of Négritude: Césaire, Senghor and Damas. While the political and historical impact of these poets is discussed in some depth, we analyze their poetry primarily in terms of its aesthetic value and concerns. We study American influences such as jazz and the poetry of the Harlem Renaissance along with French influences. The second half of this course focuses on the contemporary poetic scene in Africa and the Caribbean. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 447 The Medieval Literary Arts

How do medieval French writers understand the structures and functions of the human body? What kinds of bodies are considered disabled? Are womanhood, childhood and old age construed as disabilities? In this course we read texts of varied genre — farces, saints' lives, fabliaux, poems, romances, journals and chronicles — as we consider how, if at all, disability exists as a social or literary construct in the Middle Ages. Texts include Philippe de Beaumanoir's Manekine, Courtebarbe's Trois Aveugles de Compiègne, Guillaume de Machaut's Voir Dit and the farce Le Garçon et l'Aveugle; excerpts from Jean de Meun's Roman de la Rose, from the Ovide Moralisé and from Christine de Pizan's Mutacion de Fortune; and poems by Rutebeuf, Deschamps and Molinet, as well as critical and theoretical texts from the emerging discipline of disability studies. Texts are available in modern French; no prior study of Old French language is necessary. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 448 From Arthur to the Grail

Conducted in English. A broad survey of the Arthurian legend: its origins; its elaboration in French, English and other medieval literatures; and its expression in modern literature (especially English and American) and in the visual arts, film and music. All readings available in English. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM BU: HUM


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L34 French 450 Women and the Medieval French Literary Tradition

The Middle Ages constitute a beginning — a period when new languages and literatures came into being, along with Romanesque book — illumination and stained glass, Gothic cathedrals, Gregorian chant, Troubadour song, Crusades for the Holy Land and quests for the Holy Grail. Medieval French Literature is therefore a new literature, defining itself against antique models and its own rich multilingual, highly visual and oral culture. This course provides an overview of this diverse and fascinating French literary tradition while focusing on the status of women in the literary production of the Middle Ages. Particular attention is given to women's role in the creation of texts as authors and patrons. We also examine how gender roles are constructed and challenged through the literary representation of female characters. Readings include examples from major genres: Marie de France's Lais, Chrétien de Troyes' Lancelot, Rutebeuf's Vie de Sainte Elysabel, the anonymous Aucassin et Nicolette, as well as Fabliaux, poetry of the Trouvères and Trobairitz, excerpts of the Roman de la Rose, and works by Christine de Pizan. All readings and discussions are in modern French. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 451 French Literature of the Middle Ages I

French literature from the beginning to 1250. The course emphasizes chansons de geste, courtly romance and lyric, and early drama. Most works read in modern French. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 452 French Literature of the Middle Ages II: I, Object

In this seminar we will explore the significance of objects and objectification in medieval French literature. What happens when people are treated as "love objects" in lyric poetry, or when inanimate objects take on human properties in comical or allegorical texts? How do the "transactions" of fictional wills and legacies bind one human subject to another? We will approach these questions through a number of theoretical perspectives, includiing psychoanalytic, poststructuralist, posthuman, and thing theory. Texts include poems of the troubadours and trouvères, fabliaux, the Roman de la Rose, René d'Anjou's Livre du cuer d'amours espris, and Villon's Testament. Texts will be read in modern French; no prior study of Old French language is necessary. Prerequisite: French 325 or 326 or the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM


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L34 French 453 History of the French Language

Study of phonetic and morphological evolution of the French language with side glances at historical events that shaped this development. No previous knowledge of Latin necessary. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA


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L34 French 456 Romance Philology

Study of the evolution of the major Romance languages from their common Latin origins. Knowledge of classical Latin not required, but acquaintance with phonetics of at least one Romance language extremely helpful. Conducted in English. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA


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L34 French 458 Nature, Landscape and Travel in the Middle Ages

Through an examination of the concept of nature in the Middle Ages, the course analyzes the importance of the presence or absence of landscapes in medieval literature, including chansons de geste, courtly romances, Roman de la Rose, accounts of travel and pilgrimages, poetry and theater. We examine the movements of medieval men and women from one place to another; their concepts of the relation between the nature and culture; their emotions when confronting nature; the various means they use to describe space and travel; the function of nature and landscapes within individual works. Each text is situated within the general framework of the history of the language and the literature of the period. The thematic focus of the course is informed through theological, philosophical and anthropological perspectives essential to an appreciation of all medieval texts. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 4581 Sacrifice and Service: Masculinity and the Medieval French Literary Tradition

The Middle Ages constitute a beginning: a period when new languages and literatures — along with Gothic cathedrals, Troubadour song, Romanesque art, Crusades for the Holy Land and quests for the Holy Grail — come into being. By focusing on the notion of service, we study how medieval society establishes a hierarchy of power that encompasses religious, feudal and courtly relationships. Particular attention is given to the construction and testing of gender roles. What are men and women asked to sacrifice? Whom and what are they supposed to serve? How do the concepts of honor and heroism motivate the service of knights and heroines to their king and God? Texts include: La Chanson de Roland, La Quete du Saint-Graal, La Vie de Saint Alexis, Le Jeu d'Adam, Béroul's and Thomas' versions of Le Roman de Tristan, Chrétien de Troyes' Le Chevalier au Lion ou Yvain, Rutebeuf's Miracle de Théophile and Christine de Pizan's famous poem on Jeanne d'Arc. All readings in modern French. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 459 Writing North Africa

This seminar studies French travel writing related to North Africa, as well as the major works of literature from and about Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, as a prelude for reading the texts of those countries' Francophone literature now considered canonical. We consider how colonial-era writing by authors such as Eugène Fromentin and Pierre Benoît defined the colonial "exotic." We then examine the way the former empire wrote its own literature in the language of the former colonizer, in the works of post-independence authors such as Kateb Yacine, Assia Djebar and Abdelkebir Khatibi, who both observe and revise the conventions of postcolonial literature. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD EN: H


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L34 French 460 Topics in European History IV

A detailed look at the contributions of major French theorists such as Beauvoir, Cixous, Irigaray, Kristeva and the interpretation of French feminism in America. We study French feminist theory with an eye to psychoanalysis; maternity as metaphor and experience; women and language and/or Marxist-feminist theory; and aesthetics. Conducted in French. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 461 Topics in French Literature and History

How genre affects both the production of a given literary text and its perception by the reader. Representative texts from different centuries and movements. Prerequisites: French 325C and 326C (or, for students who have completed the Paris Business Program, completion of either course). One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates only.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Art: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 466 Second Language Acquisition

There are many ways in which a second language can be learned: from infancy as the child of bilingual parents, or later through formal instruction, immersion in a new culture, or in a particular work or social situation. This class is an inquiry into the processes by which acquisition occurs. Topics include the nature of language learning within the scope of other types of human learning; the relationship between first and second language acquisition; the role of linguistic, cognitive, and sociocultural factors; insights gained from analyzing learners' errors; key concepts such as interlanguage and communicative competence; bilingualism; the optimal age for second language acquisition; and a critical appraisal of different theories of second language acquisition. Both theoretical and instructional implications of second language acquisition research are considered. This course can be used toward certification in TESOL and is a required course for the Graduate Certificate in Language Instruction. Prerequisite: Ling 170D or equivalent is recommended, especially for undergraduates, but is not required.
Same as L44 Ling 466

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: HUM EN: H


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L34 French 469 Reading and Writing in a Second Language

In the past decade the process of becoming literate in a second language has received considerable attention by researchers and instructors. This course, taught in English, extends issues in L2 literacy beyond pedagogy by examining the wide range of theoretical and research issues, both historical and current. Literacy acquisition among second language learners involves a number of variables including both cognitive and social factors. Topics discussed in class include: individual learner differences; the extent to which reading and writing are interrelated; text types and literary forms; literacy and social power; and universal cognitive operations. Students discuss how to bridge research and practice, and they create activities that are included in a reading and writing portfolio. Course counts toward the Graduate Certificate in Language Instruction.

Credit 3 units. A&S: LA A&S IQ: LCD


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L34 French 470 Suffering and Self-Expression in Early Modern French Literature

How did early modern people cope with disease, suffering and death? With the advancement of medical science, in particular with Ambroise Paré, who saw it as his mission to ease his patients' pain, a new sensitivity toward man's suffering began to develop. Working within the historical and scientific context of the time, this course examines old and emerging attitudes toward man's suffering with special emphasis on the relationship between suffering and artistic expression. Topics discussed include: suffering as part of the human condition; suffering and faith; suffering and early modern medicine; medicine and religion; gendered views of illness; disease/suffering as a vehicle of relief and self-expression; literary treatment of suffering and disease, including melancholia, depression, suicide, kidney stone, mourning, aging, etc.; images of the ailing body and the ailing mind in early modern texts; disease as a theme and a metaphor. Various genres are covered (fiction, poetry, drama, essay, travelogue). Authors likely include Maurice Scève, Helisenne de Crenne, Louise Labé, Joachim Du Bellay, Pierre de Ronsard, Marguerite de Navarre, Jean-Baptiste Chassignet, Gabrielle de Coignard and Michel de Montaigne. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial for undergraduates only.

Credit 3 units. Art: HUM


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L34 French 481 Sartre and Existentialism

This course studies French existentialism in light of recent intellectual developments, especially postmodernism; detailed study of Sartre's major literary and critical works. Conducted in French, nonmajors may do written work in English. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 482 Avant-Garde, Postmodern and Modernity

We study the history and evolution of an avant-garde in French literature, possible definitions of the postmodern, description of the different areas of modernity. Readings both theoretical and literary. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 483 Gender and Genre

A sampling of the diverse contributions made by French women to literary history, this course examines what prompted women to write in the 16th century; what they wrote about; which genres they chose; how these women were viewed by their contemporaries; etc. Prerequisites: French 325 or 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH, SD A&S IQ: HUM, LCD, SD Art: HUM


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L34 French 492 Contemporary French Literary Criticism

The first half of the course deals with works of Roland Barthes; the second examines relationship of philosophy to literature and explores how the ideas of Foucault, Lacan, Derrida, Deleuze, Girard and Baudrillard can be applied to the study of literary texts. Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 493 Selected French Writers

Prerequisites: French 325 and French 326 or one of these courses and the equivalent Washington University transfer literature course from Toulouse or Paris. One-hour preceptorial required for undergraduates.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH Art: HUM


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L34 French 495 Honors

To be considered for graduation with Honors, students must: (1) participate satisfactorily in two 400-level literature courses and (2) enroll in French 495 and submit an Honors Thesis approved by the department at least two months before graduation. Prerequisite: 3.0 grade point average. Qualified students should consult the department.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH


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L34 French 4951 Honors

To be considered for graduation with Honors, students must: (1) participate satisfactorily in two 400-level literature courses and (2) enroll in French 495 and submit an Honors Thesis approved by the department at least two months before graduation. Prerequisite: 3.0 grade point average. Qualified students should consult the department. Pass/fail.

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH EN: H


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