The minor in speech and hearing sciences is offered by the Program in Audiology and Communication Sciences (PACS) in the School of Medicine and is designed for students interested in exploring topics related to typical and disordered human communication. Course work provides an overview of the fields of hearing, deafness, language and speech, with opportunities to explore related topics in more depth. This minor is especially valuable for students in fields such as psychology, education, philosophy-neuroscience-psychology (PNP), and linguistics, but has broad applicability for many fields of study. Course work completed as part of this minor can also be used to fulfill the total units requirements for graduation, and as prerequisites for graduate studies in audiology, deaf education and speech-language pathology; however, the minor may not be used as an Integration in Arts & Sciences Integrated Inquiry (IQ) curriculum and does not otherwise fulfill any Arts & Sciences distribution requirements.

Contact:William W. Clark
Phone:314-747-0104
Email:clarkw@wustl.edu
Website:http://pacs.wustl.edu

There is no major in this area. The minor in speech and hearing sciences is offered by the Program in Audiology and Communication Sciences at Washington University School of Medicine. The program also offers graduate programs in the fields of audiology, deaf education, and speech and hearing sciences, leading to the following degrees: Doctor of Audiology (AuD), Master of Science in Deaf Education (MSDE), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)—Speech and Hearing Sciences.

The Minor in Speech and Hearing

Total units required: 15

Required courses:

Educ 234 Introduction to Speech and Hearing Disorders

Elective courses:

At least four of the following, totaling at least 12 units:

PACS 401Anatomy and Physiology of Speech and Hearing2-3
PACS 421Introduction to Electroacoustics3
PACS 424Speech and Hearing Sciences1
PACS 4301Sign Language I2
PACS 4302Sign Language II2
PACS 434Typical Language Development3
PACS 543Survey of Speech and Language Disorders2
PACS 544Clinical Observation and Methods in Speech-Language Pathology3
PACS 5601Clinical Audiology I3
Educ 408Education and Psychology of Exceptional Children3
Psych 433Psychology of Language3
Ling 170DIntroduction to Linguistics3
Ling 312Phonetics3

Additional Information

As the minor in speech and hearing sciences is offered by the Program in Audiology and Communication Sciences (PACS) in the School of Medicine, it may not be used as an Integration and does not otherwise fulfill any Arts & Sciences distribution requirements.

This minor is composed of a minimum of 15 hours that focus on the study of speech, language and hearing. Of these, at least nine (9) units must be at the 300 level or above. Courses to count toward the minor must be approved in advance by the minor adviser, and one or more elective courses must come from M89 PACS. Additional courses not listed may be allowed, with advance approval of the minor adviser, based on the student's individual area(s) of interest. Some courses may be subject to instructor approval in advance.

Special notes for students interested in continuing their studies in either the Doctor of Audiology (AuD) or Master of Science in Deaf Education (MSDE) program in PACS: Please consult the minor adviser for information on the appropriate course of study. In such cases, course work should focus upon applicable prerequisite courses; required introductory course work that can be waived during graduate enrollment; and other applicable requirements for professional certification. Completing other required course work prior to matriculation in one of the PACS graduate programs may impact a student's full-time status, course of study, tuition, scholarship amount, and/or other aspects of enrollment.

Visit online course listings to view offerings for M89 PACS.


M89 PACS 234 Introduction to Speech and Hearing Sciences and Disorders

Introduction to the fields of speech-language pathology, audiology, education of hearing-impaired children, and speech and hearing sciences. Normal speech and hearing processes are discussed, as well as communication disorders. Selected research topics in speech and hearing sciences are presented.
Same as L12 Educ 234

Credit 3 units. BU: BA EN: S


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M89 PACS 401 Anatomy and Physiology of Speech and Hearing

Introduction to anatomy and physiology of the peripheral hearing system and central nervous system, including functional descriptions of the systems and processes underlying speech and hearing function and dysfunction.

Credit variable, maximum 3 units.


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M89 PACS 4011 Behavior Management

Introduction to various behavior management systems effective in both individual and group environments. Behavior interventions, classroom management strategies, environmental controls, psychodynamic techniques, and biophysical interventions are discussed, observed and practiced. Focus is on working with children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Lectures and experience with children. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 414 Hearing

Study of the basic auditory phenomena: sensitivity, psychophysical attributes, masking, localization, adaptation and complex auditory perception. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 416 Evaluation Techniques for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

A basic introduction to psychometrics with emphasis on the selection, interpretation and evaluation of assessments. Specific techniques for evaluating intellectual, educational, and linguistic abilities and achievement in children who are deaf or hard of hearing, from infancy through adolescence, are discussed and demonstrated. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 421 Introduction to Electroacoustics

Introduction to the physics of sound. Topics include production, transmission and reception of sound and factors affecting human communication. Includes discussion, lectures, problems and lab.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 424 Speech and Hearing Sciences

Surveys a broad array of speech and hearing science topics. Focus is on how speech and hearing science research findings can be applied to the practice of deaf education.

Credit 1 unit.


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M89 PACS 4301 Sign Language I

Basics of American Sign Language are introduced, including vocabulary, grammatical structure, fingerspelling and cultural information about the deaf community. This is a highly interactive and participatory course.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 4302 Sign Language II

Continues development of American Sign Language with additional vocabulary, emphasis on expressive and receptive abilities, conversational skills, and knowledge of deaf culture. This is a highly interactive and participatory course. Prerequisite: PACS 4301-Sign Language I.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 434 Typical Language Development

Study of typical language development, including the phonologic, morphologic, semantic, syntactic and metalinguistic aspects. Interactions between linguistic and other areas of child development will be discussed. Contrasts will be explored between typical and atypical child development to shed light on language learning processes.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 438 Early Literacy Development of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Development of early print-recognition, reading and writing of children who are typically hearing and children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Focus is on the years leading up to kindergarten. An overarching theme is the interaction between early language and early literacy development. Evidence-based strategies for differentiated instruction will also be discussed. Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 444 Amplification Systems and Aural Rehabilitation for Children

This course will provide students with a broad understanding of amplification systems and principles and methods of aural rehabilitation as they apply to children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Amplification systems to be covered will include digital hearing aids, cochlear implants and a full range of assistive devices. Aural rehabilitation topics will emphasize patient management and will include communication strategies, conversation styles and speech recognition assessment. Students will be provided with videotapes, live demonstrations and in-class activities. Direct contact with children and technological devices will also be used to support lectures and discussions. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 4500 Observation in Deaf Education

Supervised observation of children who are deaf or hard of hearing in educational settings. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit variable, maximum 6 units.


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M89 PACS 4511 Practicum in Deaf Education

Study of typical language development, including the phonologic, morphologic, semantic, syntactic and metalinguistic aspects. Interactions between linguistic and other areas of child development will be discussed. Contrasts will be explored between typical and atypical child development to shed light on language learning processes. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 7 units.


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M89 PACS 4512 Practicum in Deaf Education

Supervised practicum in education of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Students will be placed in field experiences (early, mid-level and culminating levels) in a variety of educational settings with a variety of age ranges, using interventions in areas such as language, speech, auditory training, reading, math and other content areas. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 7 units.


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M89 PACS 4515 Language Instruction for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Principles and methods of developing competence in spoken English in children who are deaf or hard of hearing, birth to grade 12. Includes presentation of differentiated instructional techniques for teaching a diverse population of children who are deaf or hard of hearing English vocabulary, syntax and pragmatics, as well as techniques for auditory training. Evaluations and data-driven lesson planning/IEP/IFSP development will be discussed, as well as the role of families as engaged, educational partners in spoken language development. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 4525 Foundations of Literacy Theory and Instruction

Principles and methods of developing reading and writing competence in children who are typically hearing, with an emphasis on the stages of development and appropriate teaching sequences. Based on this foundation, strategies and methods will be presented for making appropriate differentiated learning adaptations and interventions for reading instruction with students who are deaf or hard of hearing who have language and reading deficits. Additional topics include the use of children's literature in instruction, the intersection of language and reading development, content literacy, and general language arts instruction. 4525A: Emphasizes observation and some practice planning and teaching reading and writing with students who are typical and atypical learners, including children who are deaf or hard of hearing and who struggle to develop appropriate literacy skills. Observations will focus on areas such as how teachers use differentiated learning strategies for diverse learners, the use of children's literature in instruction, the intersection of language and reading development, instruction in content literacy, and general language arts instruction. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 6 units.


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M89 PACS 454 Mathematics and Content-Area Instruction for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing I

Principles and methods of teaching mathematics to students who are typically hearing and those who are deaf or hard of hearing. Strategies for other content-area instruction (science, social studies), use of instructional technology, and strategies for improving content literacywill also be discussed, with an emphasis on techniques for working with children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Students will practice developing and implementing lesson plans that are aligned to state and national standards. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 455 Mathematics and Content-Area Instruction for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing II

A continuation of PACS 454. Principles and methods of teaching mathematics to students who are typically hearing and those who are deaf or hard of hearing. Strategies for other content-area instruction (science, social studies), use of instructional technology, and strategies for improving content literacy will also be discussed, with an emphasis on techniques for working with children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Students will practice developing and implementing lesson plans that are aligned to state and national standards. Prerequisites: PACS 454 and permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 457 Counseling Parents of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Examines the psychological needs of families who have children who are deaf or hard of hearing. The aim of the course is to help teachers of children who are deaf or hard of hearing interact more effectively with parents and caregivers, using a collaborative model that views families as engaged partners in the educational process. Students will develop a repertoire of interviewing and counseling skills, as well as learn about a wealth of resources to share with families. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 458 Speech for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Development, improvement and maintenance of speech skills for children who are deaf or hard of hearing through multisensory approaches. Articulation, voice and rhythm patterns are considered. Lectures, demonstrations and practice. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 460 Observation and Practicum in Audiology

Supervised observation and practicum in audiology. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 1 unit.


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M89 PACS 4611 Practicum in Audiology

Supervised practicum in audiology. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 4612 Practicum in Audiology

Supervised practicum in audiology. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 4614 Practicum in Audiology

Supervised practicum in audiology. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 4615 Practicum in Audiology

Supervised practicum in audiology. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 4620 Clinical Externship in Audiology

Full-time clinical externship in audiology (on campus). Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 12 units.


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M89 PACS 4621 Clinical Externship in Audiology

Full-time clinical externship in audiology (on campus). Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 12 units.


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M89 PACS 4630 Clinical Externship in Audiology

Full-time clinical externship in audiology (off campus). Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 12 units.


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M89 PACS 4631 Clinical Externship in Audiology

Full-time clinical externship in audiology (off campus). Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 12 units.


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M89 PACS 466 Rehabilitative Audiology

Principles and methods of aural rehabilitation with an emphasis on patient management. Topics include communication strategies and conversation styles, speech recognition assessment and hearing aid service provisions for adults, older persons, children and family members. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 468 Pediatric Audiology

Fundamentals of audiologic assessment for infants and children. Behavioral and electrophysiologic procedures, and assessment of auditory processing abilities, are presented. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 470 Business Practices

Issues relating to establishing a private practice including clinical management, small business and accounting practices, models of private practice, referrals and reimbursement, and managed care. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 5001 Electrophysiologic Techniques I

Introduces basic concepts in administration and interpretation of physiologic and electrophysiologic measures, with focus on auditory evoked potentials (AEP). Content covers basic instrumentation, parameters and variables affecting the AEP, auditory brainstem response (ABR), middle (MLR) and late (LLR) evoked potentials, auditory steady state response (ASSR) and otoacoustic emissions (OAE). Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 5002 Electrophysiologic Techniques II

Advanced concepts related to the administration and interpretation of physiologic and electrophysiologic measures. Content includes in-depth study of ABR and other auditory evoked potentials, and the clinical application of these for the audiologist. Additional topics include study of electrocochleography (ECochG), P300 auditory responses, and mismatched negativity (MMN). This course will include a thorough study of intraoperative monitoring including neurophysiology and anatomy review, cranial nerve monitoring, spinal cord monitoring, and facial nerve monitoring. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 502 Pharmacology

Includes basic information related to medications utilized for treating common hearing/balance disorders. Hearing and balance side effects of medications are discussed, as are ototoxic and preventative mechanisms related to pharmacology. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 1 unit.


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M89 PACS 505 Auditory Neuroscience

Development of an in-depth understanding of issues related to auditory neurophysiology from the auditory nerve to the cortex. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 506 Genetics in Hearing Loss

Study of the genetic causes of hearing loss and balance disorders, and syndromes affecting the auditory and vestibular systems. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 1 unit.


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M89 PACS 507 Vestibular Disorders

Comprehensive course covering the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit variable, maximum 3 units.


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M89 PACS 510 Auditory Perception

Study of how the listener perceives parameters of and differences in acoustical stimuli. Perception of the speech stimulus is also studied in detail, both for listeners who are typically-developing and those who are deaf or hard of hearing. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 511 Hearing Conservation

This course will cover topics related to hearing conservation, including effects of noise on hearing, environmental noise, classroom acoustics, federal regulations, interactions of noise and other agents, and ototoxicity. Additional topics may vary year-to-year. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 517 Counseling for Audiology

Examines the relationship between clinician and patient in audiology. Topics include counseling theory and practices, and principles and methods of effective interviewing and counseling across the lifespan. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 519 Psychosocial and Educational Foundations of Deafness

Examines psychological, social, educational, legal, historical, and cultural influences related to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Additional topics include IEPs and interprofessional collaboration related to post-high-school transitions. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 543 Survey of Speech and Language Disorders

Surveys a broad range of speech and language disorders in terms of associated characteristics, assessment techniques and treatment considerations. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 544 Clinical Observation and Methods in Speech-Language Pathology

Provides students with an introduction to clinical methods and observation experiences in speech-language pathology. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 551 Research Seminar

A seminar of variable topics related to research in speech and hearing sciences. Each semester/section has its own specific area of focus, which may include an investigation of active areas of research, an overview of outcomes-based research and evidence-based practice for students' research projects, or thorough analysis and discussion of a specific area of active research. Refer to section description for information on specific topics by section. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit variable, maximum 3 units.


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M89 PACS 551A Journal Club

Presentation and discussion of current issues and recent research in the fields related to hearing and deafness. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit variable, maximum 6 units.


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M89 PACS 554 Fundamentals of Early Intervention and Child Development

Course provides information about general and exceptional child development, focusing on ages birth through five years. Course also discusses historical and philosophical tenets of early intervention practice, focusing on a collaborative coaching model, which views families as engaged partners in the child's education. Other topics include addressing needs of families from a variety of cultural and economic backgrounds, linking families to resources, and federal laws that govern special education services for children with disabilities including transitions in service provisions for children at the age of 3 years. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 1 unit.


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M89 PACS 555 Early Intervention: Serving Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, Birth to Age 5

This course provides an overview of early childhood development of children who are deaf or hard of hearing, birth to age 5, with particular focus on early speech and language development, intervention strategies, assessment techniques, instructional strategies, and aural rehabilitation. Course discusses the philosophical tenets of early intervention practice, which views families as engaged partners in the child's education, and respects cultural and linguistic diversity. Students will learn about IFSP and IEP development, as well as a variety of resources that can be provided to families. Prerequisite: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 558 Pre-Service Teacher Preparation

This course is designed to help students in the deaf education teacher training program create a teaching portfolio that reflects their own teaching development. Students will demonstrate their ability to reflect on and critique their own teaching practice especially in relation to course planning, instructional strategies, differentiated learning, data-based decision-making, tiered systems for supporting instruction, and classroom management. Professional issues, including developing a résumé and conducting interviews, will also be discussed. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 1 unit.


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M89 PACS 5601 Clinical Audiology I

An introduction to the field of clinical audiology. Covers the role of the audiologist in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing disorders; the administration and interpretation of audiologic test results; and amplification systems and assistive devices, such as DM/FM technology. Additional topics may include relevant calibration and instrumentation requirements, audiology as a career, aural rehabilitation, and legal and ethical issues in the field. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 5602 Clinical Audiology II

Covers hearing evaluation and diagnosis in clinical audiology from infancy through adulthood. Topics include auditory processing disorders, functional hearing loss, and other advanced measures. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 565 Hearing Devices in Audiology I

Philosophical issues related to the selection and evaluation of hearing devices, including hearing aids and alternative devices. Means of adjusting hearing devices and measuring their function and benefit are covered. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 5652 Hearing Devices in Audiology II

Advanced issues related to the selection and evaluation of hearing aids. Means of adjusting hearing aids and measuring their function and benefit. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 5653 Hearing Devices in Audiology III

Course covers a variety of topics related to selection, fitting and rehabilitation of cochlear implant patients. Lectures and practical experience in psychophysical testing, programming of the cochlear implant, and auditory training. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 3 units.


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M89 PACS 569 Hearing Disorders

This course covers the nature and causes of hearing disorders, including outer and middle ear, cochlear, retrocochlear and central nervous system. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 570 Independent Study

Students engage in independent work on the Independent Study, which demonstrates advanced crticial thinking and writing skills. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit variable, maximum 6 units.


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M89 PACS 5700 Capstone Project

Independent work on the Capstone Project. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit variable, maximum 6 units.


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M89 PACS 5701 Capstone Project Seminar

This weekly, joint meeting is intended to provide extra and preliminary support for initiation of the Capstone Project. Areas will include but are not limited to: journal article critique, scientific writing, overview of research design and methodologies, statistical review, support for graph and table construction, and others. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 1 unit.


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M89 PACS 574 Statistics and Research Methods

Examines experimental and field research methods as they apply to audiology and communication sciences. Covers such methods as surveys, survey interviews, content analysis, and experimental design. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit 2 units.


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M89 PACS 575 Special Topics

Special topics in speech and hearing sciences, audiology and/or education of the deaf or hard of hearing. Contact the department for more information. Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit variable, maximum 4 units.


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M89 PACS 577 Research in Speech and Hearing

Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit variable, maximum 12 units.


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M89 PACS 587 Dissertation Research

Prerequisites: Permission of department required.

Credit variable, maximum 12 units.


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M89 PACS 885 Master's Nonresident

Prerequisites: Permission of department required.


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Program Director

William W. Clark
Professor of Audiology and Communication Sciences; Professor of Otolaryngology; Professor of Education
PhD, University of Michigan

Director of Audiology Studies

L. Maureen Valente
Associate Professor of Audiology and Communication Sciences; Associate Professor of Otolaryngology
PhD, Washington University

Director of Deaf Education Studies

Heather Hayes
Associate Professor of Audiology and Communication Sciences; Associate Professor of Otolaryngology
PhD, Washington University

Assistant Professors

Brian T. Faddis
Assistant Professor of Audiology and Communication Sciences; Research Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology
PhD, University of California, Davis

Rosalie M. Uchanski
Assistant Professor of Audiology and Communication Sciences; Research Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology
PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Other