The interdisciplinary major in urban studies is ideal for students drawn to serious examination of the profound issues confronting urban/metropolitan America. Urban Studies seeks to prepare students, indeed our nation's future leaders, for the challenge of solving these issues. We seek to prepare students to research and investigate issues concerned with evolving patterns of metropolitanism and the necessity for central city reconstruction; problems associated with regentrification, urban sprawl and affordable housing; crises confronting newly emerging immigrant communities and the social cleavages of urban marginalized communities; unemployment and underemployment; law and justice; HIV/AIDS and issues of public health; the economic underdevelopment of poor communities; race and inequality; the paradox of declining welfare rolls amidst escalating poverty rates; underperforming urban schools; and the in-migration and out-migration of the city and its schools, among others. All available social indices suggest that such domestic issues in our central cities will only increase in significance in the years ahead. The fact that many of the aforementioned issues are deeply embedded in cities of the world makes Urban Studies not just focused on domestic cities but global cities as well.
Urban studies is a stand-alone major. The students presently in the program are jointly pursuing study in urban studies and in pre-law, pre-medicine, political science, educational studies, environmental studies, economics, international and area studies, philosophy-neuroscience-psychology, architecture, and comparative arts, among others. Our purpose is to prepare students to critically engage the social, political and economic dilemmas facing our cities, both domestically and internationally, with intellectual rigor, integrity, sensitivity and compassion. The program draws faculty and course work from the various academic units including, but not limited to, Arts & Sciences, the Brown School (Social Work and Public Health), the School of Law, and the College of Architecture at the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts. To complement our course work, Urban Studies accepts internships based locally, nationally or internationally, with appropriate support documents.
|Contact:||Carol Camp Yeakey|
The Major in Urban Studies
Total required units: 33 units, 21 of which must be 300-level or above. Of these 21 advanced units, no more than 6 units may be from independent study courses.
Required courses: URST 299 The Study of Cities and Metropolitan America; one introductory course in math or applied statistics; one 400-level independent study or an internship located locally, nationally or internationally; and a senior thesis (or senior seminar if offered).
Elective courses: There are five subject area concentrations in Urban Studies: neighborhoods and community development; urban education; cities of the world; public policy/social policy; and public health. Once a student declares a major in urban studies, they will be assigned a major adviser who will help the student formulate the area concentration.
Because of the nature of the major and requirements of the nonresidential components, majors are strongly encouraged to declare by their third semester in residency.
Study Abroad: The program offers the International Urban Scholars Study Abroad Program through Oxford University, the London School of Economics and Political Science, University of Cape Town in South Africa, and Fudan University in Shanghai, China.
Senior Honors: Urban studies majors are encouraged to work for Senior Honors, for which they may apply in the junior year. Acceptance into the program is based on the student's previous academic performance and a proposal to a core (not affiliated) faculty member in Urban Studies who agrees to supervise the honors research. The honors candidate must complete honors thesis research, which is evaluated by a three-member faculty committee.
The Minor in Urban Studies
Total required units: 15
|URST 299||The Study of Cities and Metropolitan America||3|
12 units at the 300 level or above. All courses for the minor must be taken for a letter grade, with a passing grade of C or better. These courses must be home-based in three different departments or programs and may not include courses in the student's major field. A complete list of general courses that count toward the urban studies minor is published each semester in WUCRSL. No more than 3 units may be counted from among the following: directed readings, independent study, internships, University College, or credits from another institution including study abroad.
The minor in urban studies facilitates the study of urbanization across the globe, from multiple disciplinary perspectives, and is designed to complement any major field of study. Students are encouraged to pursue course work, in companion with their major field of interest, that is distinctive yet complementary to the study of urbanization, which impacts all fields of inquiry. Courses must be selected in consultation with the program director/adviser in Urban Studies.
Visit online course listings to view semester offerings for L18 URST.
L18 URST 101 First-Year Seminar: Introduction to Urban Studies
This course provides a survey of the field of urban studies, utilizing the City of St. Louis as a field site. The major purpose of the course is to gradually reveal how a city operates internally, and how it operates externally with its sister cities, surrounding metropolitan areas and neighboring states, amidst competing and often contradictory interests. Utilizing historical analysis as a guide, the course briefly revisits the experiences of previous waves of ethnic groups to the St. Louis metropolitan area, as a lens for understanding the current social, political and economic dilemmas that many urban dwellers in St. Louis now face. The course reveals to students the intricacies of social welfare issues and policies among high density populations, in St. Louis, that are homogeneous and heterogeneous, at the same time. Visits and discussions with various governmental and nongovernmental agencies, and how such agencies function or dysfunction for various constituencies allow students to ask crucial questions regarding equality of opportunity in a democratic society. Students also encounter diverse communities and neighborhoods and the intended and unintended consequences of social welfare policies designed to ameliorate urban dilemmas such as poverty and inequality, homelessness, educational underachievement, gentrification, migration and immigration, development, health care, fiscal issues, the informal economy, and issues concerned with crime and social justice, among others. Readings are reinforced and challenged through visits, interactions and observations with broad constituencies and institutions, ranging from city officials to community residents. As such, this course offers a survey discussion of the rich interdisciplinary field of urban studies for those who may be interested in pursuing a standalone major in the field of urban studies.
L18 URST 163 Freedom, Citizenship, and the Making of American Culture
This course offers a broad survey of American history from the era before European settlement of North America to the late 20th century. The course explores the emergence and geographic expansion of the United States and addresses changes in what it meant to be an American during the nation's history. Tracing major changes in the nation's economic structures, politics, social order and culture, the course chronicles, among other issues, changes in the meanings of freedom, citizenship and American identity. Introductory course to the major and minor.
Same as L22 History 163
L18 URST 2020 The Immigrant Experience
This course explores the history and politics of immigrant groups in the 19th- and 20th-century United States. Topics include legislation, patterns of migration, comparisons of different waves of immigration, and changing social attitudes. This course is a core requirement for the ethnic studies concentration in American Culture Studies.
Same as L98 AMCS 202
L18 URST 206B "Reading" Culture: How to Read Images: Visual Culture and Visual Literacy
Refer to section description.
Same as L98 AMCS 206
L18 URST 2091 First-Year Seminar: The City in Early Modern Europe
From the city-states of Renaissance Italy to the 18th-century boomtowns of London and Paris, cities functioned as political, economic and cultural centers, creating unique opportunities and challenges for their diverse inhabitants. Using a wide variety of primary and secondary sources, this course will examine how men and women, rich and poor, established citizens and marginal groups, tried to understand and manage life in the city. Their conflicting experiences and expectations created not only social and economic unrest, but also a resilient social infrastructure, a tradition of popular participation in politics, and a rich legacy of cultural accomplishment. Topics studied include: urban political and economic organization; the creation and use of public spaces; religion as a source of community and conflict; and urban crime and public punishment.
Same as L22 History 2091
L18 URST 230 Topics in Urban America: The Sensory Landscape of the American City
This course foregrounds the interpretive and analytical approaches used in the study of American cities. The city is a crucial frame for understanding the nation's cultural, economic, social, political and ecological concerns and evolution. Employing multiple perspectives, we interpret urban space as a product of culture, explore the city's importance in shaping American society, and investigate the ongoing evolution of the built environment. This course lays the basis for interdisciplinary thinking and research in American culture studies. The topic varies by semester. Please consult course listings for a description of the current offering. The course is ideal for AMCS majors and minors, but others are welcome. This course fulfills the introductory course requirement for AMCS students.
Same as L98 AMCS 230
Credit 3 units. BU: BA, HUM
L18 URST 233 Biomedical Ethics
A critical examination, in the light of contemporary moral disagreements and traditional ethical theories, of some of the moral issues arising out of medical practice and experimentation in our society. Issues that might be discussed include euthanasia, genetic engineering, organ transplants, medical malpractice, the allocation of medical resources, and the rights of the patient.
Same as L30 Phil 233F
L18 URST 258 Law, Politics and Society
This course is an introduction to the functions of law and the legal system in American society. The course material stresses the realities of the operation of the legal system (in contrast to legal mythology), as well as the continuous interaction and feedback between the legal and political systems. There are four specific objectives to the course: (1) to introduce legal concepts and legal theories; (2) to analyze the operation of the appellate courts, with particular emphasis on the U.S. Supreme Court; (3) to analyze the operation of American trial courts, especially juries and the criminal courts; and (4) to examine the linkages between culture and law. Not open to students who have previously taken Pol Sci 358.
Same as L32 Pol Sci 258
L18 URST 298 Practicum in Urban Studies
Practicum with an urban studies-affiliated faculty. All proposals for practicum must be submitted for review and approved by the urban studies adviser. Enrollment by permission of the instructor.
Credit variable, maximum 3 units.
L18 URST 299 The Study of Cities and Metropolitan America
This course serves as the introductory course analyzing the forces shaping America's cities and surrounding metropolitan areas. It examines strategies for dealing with many of the profound social issues affecting urban/metropolitan America. Emanating from a historical perspective, it examines the ways in which industrialization and deindustrialization shaped Northern American cities and the consequences of deindustrialization on urban citizenry. It further surveys the demographic and spatial transformation of American cities, examining the consequences of urban transformation on federal, state and local politics on society and on her institutions. Similarly, the course focuses on the origin and societal changes and emerging goals of urban development, gentrification and evolving patterns of metropolitanism and the necessity for central city as well as neighborhood reconstruction. The dynamics of racial residential segregation; crime and punishment; issues of academic achievement and under-achievement; and the social cleavages of urban marginalized communities, family structure, urban homelessness, urban sprawl and health care among others, are viewed from the perspective of social justice by exploring social, political, economic, racial and ethnic factors that impact on access, equity and care. Various theoretical perspectives and philosophies are introduced that have dominated the discourse on race and urban poverty. A field-based component complements the course work, and is designed to build interest, awareness and skills in preparation for outreach to urban communities. Prerequisite: sophomore standing.
L18 URST 3025 Sports & Culture: Empire of Hoop: Basketball as American Culture
Topics course focusing on instances of identity and culture within the American scope. Varies by semester; refer to course listings for description of current semester's offering.
Same as L98 AMCS 3025
L18 URST 303 Independent Study in Urban Studies
Independent study with an urban studies-affiliated faculty. All proposals for practicum must be submitted for review and approved by the urban studies adviser. Enrollment by permission of the instructor.
Credit variable, maximum 3 units. EN: S
L18 URST 304 Educational Psychology
A course in psychological concepts relevant to education. Organized around four basic issues: how humans think and learn; how children, adolescents and adults differ in their cognitive and moral development; the sense in which motivation and intention explain why people act as they do; how such key human characteristics as intelligence, motivation and academic achievement can be measured. Prerequisite: sophomore standing. Offered fall and spring semesters.
Same as L12 Educ 304
L18 URST 3066 The American City in the 19th and 20th Centuries
This course will explore the cultural, political, and economic history of U.S. cities in the 19th and 20th centuries. The course will focus on New York, Chicago, St. Louis, Los Angeles and Atlanta, although other cities may be included. Students will conduct significant primary research on sections of St. Louis, developing a detailed history of one of the city's neighborhoods. Much of the course readings address broad themes such as immigration, industrialization, deindustrialization, and race and gender relations in American cities.
Same as L22 History 3066
L18 URST 308 Human Variation
A survey of human biological diversity, considering its adaptive and taxonomic significance from the perspective of origins and distribution of traits and adaptation. Prerequisite: Anthro 150A or introductory biology.
Same as L48 Anthro 307A
L18 URST 3091 Poverty and Social Reform in American History
This course explores the history of dominant ideas about the causes of and solutions to poverty in American society from the early republic to the end of the 20th century. We will investigate changing economic, cultural, and political conditions that gave rise to new populations of impoverished Americans, and to the expansion or contraction of poverty rates at various times in American history. We will, however, focus primarily on how various social commentators, political activists and reformers defined poverty, explained its causes, and struggled to ameliorate its effects. The course aims to highlight changes in theories and ideas about the relationship between dependence and independence, personal responsibility and social obligation, and the state and the citizen.
Same as L22 History 3091
L18 URST 313B Education, Childhood, Adolescence and Society
An examination of childhood, child development and education from different perspectives. Observation of children in a variety of settings, including classrooms. Through historical, sociological, psychological and political readings, students will clarify current ideas about children, investigate the nature of childhood, and begin to understand how and why childhood is constructed as it is. Prerequisite: sophomore standing. Limited to 45 students.
Same as L12 Educ 313B
L18 URST 3141 Sociolinguistics, Literacies, Schools, and Communities
The well-known "literacy crisis" has forced scholars from many nations to turn their attention to learning about linguistic, cultural and class diversity of students and what this means for learning in schools. In this course we will engage with the perceived disjuncture between homes, communities, and schools in an era of higher literacy standards, local literacies, and community knowledge. We will examine the contribution of sociolinguistics to what we know about language and literacy education, achievement, and how this relates to social transformation within and across communities. Students can expect theoretical and methodological conversations as we use critical discourse theories, systemic linguistic approaches, and empowerment theories as lenses to formulate, challenge and critique the existing status of language and literacy education.
Same as L12 Educ 314
L18 URST 315 Introduction to Social Psychology
Introduction to the scientific study of individual behavior in a social context. Topics: person perception, stereotyping and prejudice, attitudes, memory and political psychology, among other issues. Prerequisite: Psych 100B.
Same as L33 Psych 315
L18 URST 316F Rediscovering the Child: Interdisciplinary Workshops in an Urban Middle School
It is said that at this time in history the entire country must make a commitment to improve the positive possibilities of education. We must work to lift people who are underserved; we must expand the range of abilities for those who are caught in only one kind of training; and we must each learn to be creative thinkers contributing our abilities to many sectors of our society. In this course, we expand our views about learning by experimenting with the creative process of lateral thinking. In the first six weeks of the semester, we learn about learning by meeting with exceptional people with many scholarly, professional, and civic engagement accomplishments. We also learn by working in teams to develop an exciting set of 2-D/3-D, hands-on, problem-solving workshops for middle-schoolers from economically disadvantaged urban families; the workshop curriculum is based upon students' knowledge and passion as well as their interests. During the last eight weeks, we deliver these workshops once a week to students at Compton-Drew Middle School (adjacent to the Science Center in the city of St. Louis). In this course we celebrate the choices of studies we each pursue, and expand our experience by learning from each other's knowledge bases and creativity. The course is open to students from all disciplines and schools, freshmen through seniors, and meets the multidisciplinary fieldwork requirement for AMCS majors.
Same as L98 AMCS 316F
L18 URST 3206 Global Gender Issues
This course compares the life experiences of women and men in societies throughout the world. We discuss the evidence regarding the universal subordination of women, and examine explanations that propose to situate women's and men's personality attributes, roles and responsibilities in the biological or cultural domains. In general, through readings, films and lectures, the class provides a cross-cultural perspective on ideas regarding gender and how gendered meanings, practices, performances serve as structuring principles in society.
Same as L48 Anthro 3206
L18 URST 3211 Introduction to Colonial Latin America
This course surveys the history of Latin America from the pre-Columbian civilizations through the Iberian exploration and conquest of the Americas until the Wars of Independence (roughly 1400-1815). Stressing the experiences and cultural contributions of Americans, Europeans and Africans, we consider the following topics through primary written documents, firsthand accounts and excellent secondary scholarship, as well as through art, music and architecture: Aztec, Maya, Inca and Iberian civilizations; models of conquest in comparative perspective (Spanish, Portuguese and Amerindian); environmental histories; consolidation of colonialism in labor, tributary and judicial systems; race, ethnicity, slavery, caste and class; religion and the Catholic Church and Inquisition; sugar and mining industries, trade and global economies; urban and rural life; the roles of women, gender and sexuality in the colonies. Geographically, we cover Mexico, the Andes and, to a lesser extent, Brazil, the Southwest, Cuba, and the Southern Cone. Premodern, Latin America.
Same as L22 History 321C
L18 URST 326 American Economic History
Basic theoretical concepts applied to analyze the changing structure and performance of the American economy from colonial times to the present. Prerequisites: Econ 1011 and Econ 1021.
Same as L11 Econ 326
L18 URST 3283 Introduction to Global Health
This course provides a general introduction to the field of public health. It examines the philosophy, history, organization, functions, activities and results of public health research and practice. Case studies include infectious and chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and reproductive health, food safety and nutrition, environmental health, and global public health. Students are encouraged to look at health issues from a systemic and population-level perspective, and to think critically about health systems and problems, especially health disparities and health care delivery to diverse populations. No background in anthropology or public health is required.
Same as L48 Anthro 3283
L18 URST 3319 Health, Healing and Ethics: Introduction to Medical Anthropology
A cross-cultural exploration of cultures and social organizations of medical systems, the global exportation of biomedicine, and ethical dilemmas associated with medical technologies and global disparities in health.
Same as L48 Anthro 3310
L18 URST 3331 Topics in Politics
This course is intended primarily for sophomores and juniors. The topic of this course varies by semester, dependent on faculty and student interests.
Same as L32 Pol Sci 333
L18 URST 3352 China's Urban Experience: Shanghai and Beyond
The course studies the history of Chinese cities from the mid-19th century to the late 20th century. It situates the investigation of urban transformation in two contexts: the domestic context of modern China's reform and revolution; and the global context of the international flow of people, products, capitals and ideas. It chooses a local narrative approach and situates the investigation in one of China's largest, complex, and most dynamic and globalized cities — Shanghai. The experience of the city and its people reveals the creative and controversial ways people redefined, reconfigured and reshaped forces such as imperialism, nationalism, consumerism, authoritarianism, liberalism, communism and capitalism. The course also seeks to go beyond the "Shanghai model" by comparing Shanghai with other Chinese cities. It presents a range of the urban experience in modern China.
Same as L03 East Asia 3352
L18 URST 3361 Topics in Politics
This course is intended primarily for sophomores and juniors. The topic of this course varies by semester, dependent on faculty and student interests.
Same as L32 Pol Sci 336
L18 URST 3405 For Freedom's Sake: The Civil Rights Movement in America
This course provides an introduction to the period of struggle in American history known as the Civil Rights Movement. Our primary task is to survey the major historical figures, organizations, locations, strategies and ideas that coalesce to make the history of the movement. The course broadly covers the years of the Black Freedom Struggle between 1945 and 1971, with a sharper focus on the pivotal years of 1954-1965. By placing the movement within a broader context, the course seeks to identify the historical developments and social realities that made the movement necessary and possible. The class also looks at the years following the movement, and the general transition from Civil Rights to Black Power.
Same as L90 AFAS 3405
L18 URST 343 Understanding the Evidence: Provocative Topics of Contemporary Women's Health and Reproduction
Contemporary topics of women's health and reproduction are used as vehicles to introduce the student to the world of evidence-based data acquisition. Selected topics span and cross a multitude of contemporary boundaries. Issues evoke moral, ethical, religious, cultural, political and medical foundations of thought. Students are provided introductory detail to each topic and subsequently embark on an independent critical review of current data and opinion to formulate their own said notions. Examples of targeted topics for the upcoming semester include, but are not limited to: Abortion, Human Cloning, Genetics, Elective Cesarean Section, Fetal Surgery, Hormone Replacement, Refusal of Medical Care, Medical Reimbursement, Liability Crisis and Gender Bias of Medical Care.
Same as L77 WGSS 343
L18 URST 3472 Global Energy and the American Dream
This lecture course explores the historical, cultural and political relationship between America and global energy, focusing on oil, coal, natural gas, biofuels and alternatives. Through case studies at home and abroad, we examine how cultural, environmental, economic and geopolitical processes are entangled with changing patterns of energy-related resource extraction, production, distribution and use. America's changing position as global consumer and dreamer is linked to increasingly violent contests over energy abroad while our fuel-dependent dreams of boundless (oil) power give way to uncertainties and new possibilities of nation, nature and the future. Assuming that technology and markets alone will not save us, what might a culturally, politically and socially minded inquiry contribute to understanding the past and future of global energy and the American dream?
Same as L48 Anthro 3472
L18 URST 348 Economic Realities of the American Dream
Exploration of the realities of economic life in the U.S. and how they correspond to the American Dream. Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, sociology, and other areas of social inquiry. Emphasis on the consistency between empirical data and different concepts of the American Dream. Specific topics to include sources of economic growth and changing living standards, unemployment, impact of globalization on U.S. citizens, economic mobility, poverty and inequality, and social justice. Prerequisites: Econ 1011 and Econ 1021, or consent of the instructors.
Same as L11 Econ 348
L18 URST 3551 The Welfare State and Social Policy in America
How can we understand the recent debate about fundamental health care reform? Should social security be partially or wholly privatized? Was the 1996 welfare reform a success? Contemporary political questions frequently focus on the American welfare state and the social policies that compose it. The first half of this course describes the American welfare state broadly construed, places it in a comparative context, and elucidates major political science explanations for the size and scope of American social policy. We touch on several areas of social policy while constructing the generalized lenses through which particular political outcomes can be understood. The second part of the course then focuses on three major aspects of the American welfare state: health care, old age pensions and policies related to work, poverty and inequality.
Same as L32 Pol Sci 3551
L18 URST 3581 Law, Politics and Society
This course is an introduction to the functions of law and the legal system in American society. The course material stresses the realities of the operation of the legal system (in contrast to legal mythology), as well as the continuous interaction and feedback between the legal and political systems. There are four specific objectives to the course: (1) to introduce students to legal concepts and legal theories; (2) to analyze the operation of the appellate courts, with particular emphasis on the U.S. Supreme Court; (3) to analyze the operation of American trial courts, especially juries and the criminal courts; and (4) to examine the linkages between culture and law.
Same as L32 Pol Sci 358
L18 URST 360 Religion and the Modern Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1968
The modern Civil Rights Movement is a landmark event in the nation's political, civic, cultural and social history. In many contexts, this movement for and against civil and legal equality took on a religious ethos, with activists, opponents and observers believing that the net result of the marches, demonstrations and legislative rulings would redeem and/or destroy "The Soul of the Nation." This seminar examines the modern Civil Rights Movement and its strategies and goals, with an emphasis on the prominent religious ideologies and activities that were visible and utilized in the modern movement. The course pays particular attention to the Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, and Islamic traditions, figures and communities that were indifferent, combative, instrumental and/or supportive of Civil Rights legislation throughout the mid-20th century.
Same as L57 RelPol 360
L18 URST 3612 Population and Society
This review of population processes and their social ramifications begins with an introduction to the basic terminology, concepts, and methods of population studies, followed by a survey of human population trends through history. The course then investigates biological and social dimensions of marriage and childbearing, critically examines family planning policies, deals with the social impacts of epidemics and population ageing, and looks at connections between population movements and sociocultural changes. The overall objective of the course is to understand how population processes are not just biological in nature, but are closely related to social, cultural, political, and economic factors.
Same as L48 Anthro 3612
L18 URST 3613 City of Peace: Baghdad in Medieval Times
The subject of this course is an exploration of the city of Baghdad in medieval times from its foundation in the eighth century to its sack by the Mongols in the 13th. Starting from the background history of its location in Mesopotamia, we study the reasons of its foundation in that location and examine its topography, city planning and layout, institutions, citizens, neighborhoods, markets, libraries and workshops to discuss life in the city. Because Baghdad was the seat of the Abbasid caliphate at the time, we examine its role as the hub of the empire (in politics, administration, economy and literature), and its links to and rivalries with other provincial cities.
Same as L75 JINE 361
L18 URST 3626 Adventures in Nosology: The Nature and Meaning of Disease
What is a "disease" and how do you diagnose one? What are "medicines" and how, when, and for what purpose should they be used? These questions reflect universal human concerns, but the answers given to these questions have varied enormously in different times and places. The course considers the nature of health, illness, disease and its treatment, beginning with a detailed examination of the traditional ethnomedical system of the Hausa people of northern Nigeria. Using this West African medical system as a baseline for comparison, the course then explores the nature of "nosology" (the classification of diseases) and the underlying logic of different therapeutic systems in different times and cultures, including our own. The course draws on ethnography, the history of medicine, bioethics and human biology to understand how these questions are asked and answered in different societies, times and places.
Same as L48 Anthro 3626
L18 URST 3632 The American Frontier: 1776-1848
This course will examine the nation's shifting frontier from independence through the Mexican-American War. It will consider people and places in flux as their nationality, demography and social order underwent dramatic changes. Students will make use of an extensive electronic archive of primary sources including period documents, historic maps and contemporary artwork, in order to consider how these sources confirm, reject or expand on the ideas they encounter in published scholarship.
Same as L22 History 3632
L18 URST 3670 The Long Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement is known as a southern movement, led by church leaders and college students, fought through sit-ins and marches, dealing primarily with non-economic objectives, framed by a black and white paradigm, and limited to a single tumultuous decade. This course seeks to broaden our understanding of the movement geographically, chronologically and thematically. It pays special attention to struggles fought in the North, West and Southwest; it seeks to question binaries constructed around "confrontational" and "accommodationist" leaders; it reveals how Latinos, Native Americans and Asian Americans impacted and were impacted by the movement; and it seeks to link the public memory of this movement with contemporary racial politics.
Same as L22 History 3670
L18 URST 374 Drugs, Brain, and Behavior
This course will review information pertaining both to medications used to treat psychiatric disorders and to psychoactive drugs of abuse. By learning principles of pharmacology and mechanisms of action of these agents, students will develop an enhanced knowledge of the brain mechanisms underlying abnormal human behavior. Prerequisites: Psych 100B and one of the following: Psych 354 or 3401 or 344.
Same as L33 Psych 374
L18 URST 375 Topics in Urban Studies
Prerequisites: URST 299 and junior standing.
Credit 3 units.
L18 URST 3755 Disability, Quality of Life & Community Responsibility
The increasing prevalence of disability presents major challenges for American society. Social participation can be a challenge for people with disabilities, while resources to address these needs tend to be limited. This course will begin by critically analyzing concepts of disability, Quality of Life, health and social participation. We will construct a framework for examining social participation and community resources across the lifespan. Public health, educational and environmental theories and methods will be applied to programs and services that aim to enhance quality of life with disabilities. We will analyze ecological approaches to enhancing social participation. Upon completion of this course, students will be equipped to analyze challenges and prioritize resources for individual and population health.
Same as L43 GeSt 375
L18 URST 3798 Building St. Louis History: The City and Its Renaissance
This course aims to provide a national and local understanding of how Americans and St. Louisans dealt with the problems of racism, poverty and sexism from 1945 to the present. While history courses traditionally require that students analyze the credibility and subjectivity of each historical source, this course further challenges students to use the methods of oral history to compare evidence from oral historical memory with written texts. By comparing St. Louis history with that of the rest of the nation, students analyze regional differences and understand the unique historical conditions that shaped this city.
Same as L22 History 3789
L18 URST 380 Applications in GIS
This introductory course in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is designed to provide basic knowledge of GIS theory and applications using the existing state-of-the-art GIS software. The course is taught using a combination of lectures, demonstrations and hands-on, interactive tutorials in the classroom. The first week of the course provides a broad view of how students can display and query spatial data and produce map products. The remainder of the course focuses on applying spatial analytical tools to address questions and solve problems. As the semester develops, more tools are added to students' GIS toolbox so that they can complete a final independent project that integrates material learned during the course. Students are encouraged to design individualized final projects using their own or other available data; however, some already-prepared final projects also are available.
Same as L82 EnSt 380
L18 URST 384W Migration and Modernity in Russia and the (Former) Soviet Union
This class introduces students to a broad history of 19th and 20th century Russia and the Soviet Union alongside problems of migration. In this class, students will be introduced to the historical, social, and political dimensions of migration within, to, and from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and its successor states. We will look at the intersection of the movement of people with long-term economic, social and political transformations, but also pay attention to crucial events and phenomena of Soviet history that set large-scale migrations in motion. Course materials will, for instance, address mass movements related to modernization and internal colonization, analyze the role of revolutionary change and warfare for forced displacement, and study the implications of geopolitical changes in the aftermath of the breakdown of the USSR for human rights discourses. Alongside the historically grounded overview, the class explores concepts of citizenship, diaspora, nationality policy, gender specific experiences of migration, and the ethics and political economy of migration politics, thereby highlighting how current trends in Russian society are indicative of broader discourses on difference and social transformation.
Same as L97 IAS 384W
L18 URST 3874 International Public Health
This course explores current topics in international public health using a case-study-based approach, emphasizing public health issues affecting low- and middle-income countries; introduction to the tools and methods of international public health research and programs; in-depth examination and critique of the roles of local and national governments, international agencies and third-party donors in international public health work; and the contributions of anthropology to the international public health agenda.
Same as L48 Anthro 3874
L18 URST 389A Power, Justice and the City
This course examines normative theoretical questions of power and justice through the lens of the contemporary city, with a particular focus on American urban life. It explores urban political economic problems, questions of racial hierarchy and racial injustice in the modern metropolis, and the normative and practical dilemmas posed by "privatism" in cities and their suburbs.
Same as L32 Pol Sci 389A
L18 URST 400 Urban Education in Multiracial Societies
This course offers students an analysis of the historical development and contemporary contexts of urban education in English-speaking, multiracial societies. It examines legal decisions, relevant policy decisions, and salient economic determinants that inform urban systems of education in Western societies including, but not limited to, the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and South Africa. The course draws on quantitative, qualitative, and comparative data as an empirical foundation to provide a basis for a cross-cultural understanding of the formalized and uniform system of public schooling characteristic of education in urban settings. Given the social and material exigencies that shape urban school systems in contemporary societies, special attention is given in this course to the roles of migration, immigration urbanization, criminal justice, industrialism, de-industrialism, and globalization in shaping educational outcomes for diverse students in the aforementioned settings. Prerequisite: junior standing or permission of instructor.
L18 URST 403 Directed Study in Urban Studies
Directed study with an urban studies-affiliated faculty. All proposals for practicum must be submitted for review and approved by the urban studies adviser. Enrollment by permission of the instructor.
Credit variable, maximum 3 units.
L18 URST 4033 Video Microanalysis: Methods and Tools
The purpose of this course is to explore video microanalysis as a methodological tool for studying and valuing unconscious aspects of culturally diverse settings. Utilizing a social/cultural theoretical lens, this type of analysis reveals fleeting actions, subtle movements, peripheral events, and nonverbal communication that are not easily identified in real time viewing. Specifically we may look at facial expressions, direction of gaze, hand movements, body position, and use of material resources as micro techniques to expand our capacity to explore minute aspects and alternative interpretations of social interactions.
Same as L12 Educ 4033
L18 URST 404 Directed Readings in Urban Studies
This course consists of readings in urban studies that deal with a range of contemporary issues, focusing on cities and the surrounding metropolitan regions. It can be taken only under the direction of the director of the urban studies program. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. The student must be a declared major in urban studies. Consult program approval form.
Credit 3 units.
L18 URST 4041 Islam and Politics
Blending history and ethnography, this course covers politics in the Islamic world in historical and contemporary times. Topics include history of Islam, uniformity and diversity in belief and practice (global patterns, local realities), revolution and social change, women and veiling, and the international dimensions of resurgent Islam. Geographical focus extends from Morocco to Indonesia; discussion of other Muslim communities is included (Bosnia, Chechnya, sub-Saharan Africa, U.S.).
Same as L48 Anthro 4041
L18 URST 406 Sexual Health and the City: A Community-Based Learning Course
In this community-based learning course, students partner with a St. Louis AIDS service organization (ASO) or sexual health agency to explore how the interrelationships among gender, class, race/ethnicity and sexual identity shape sexual health decisions, outcomes and access to services. Students also examine the complex relationship between men's and women's life goals and constraints, on the one hand, and the public health management of sexual health, on the other. In collaboration with their community partner and its clients, students develop a project that addresses an identified need of the organization and the community it serves. Course readings draw from the fields of anthropology, public health, feminist studies and policy making. Prerequisite: PHealth 4134 The AIDS Epidemic: Inequalities, Ethnography and Ethics or permission from the instructor, which is determined based on past student's experience in the fields of medical anthropology or sexual/reproductive health.
Same as L90 AFAS 406
L18 URST 4070 Global Justice
This course examines contemporary debates and controversies regarding global justice. Seminar discussions are arranged around significant issues in the current literature. For example: What (if anything) do we owe to the distantly needy? Do we have special obligations to our compatriots? Do political borders have normative significance? And so on. This course is of interest not only to political theorists, but also students in other fields interested in social justice or international relations generally.
Same as L32 Pol Sci 4070
L18 URST 4101 Metropolitan Finance
This course is an interdisciplinary examination of fiscal policies in metropolitan regions and the related public policies that can make them better or worse places for living and working. A particular focus is on the financial structures and arrangements — both public and private — that support or hinder quality of life in urban spaces. Core topics of study include the potential impact of decentralized governments on metropolitan economic development, determination of optimal arrangements for sharing fiscal responsibilities among levels of government, evaluation of local revenue and expenditure decisions, and assessment of prospects and options for intergovernmental fiscal reform. The course is consistent in its approach to policy. Drawing on literature in sociology, education, public finance, community development, political economy and other related fields, the course readings and experiences explore how fiscal policies can and do affect urban dwellers and their well-being. This is a departure from many public finance courses. Such an approach leads to very different questions: How do liquor zoning regulations influence minority and nonminority children in schools? Should whites be paid to move into minority neighborhoods or vice versa? This approach to the study of metropolitan finance puts an emphasis on topics such as child care, public transportation, minimum wage, housing codes, street behavior, homelessness, incarceration, alcohol, sports stadiums, illicit drugs, tax abatements, water service, garbage collection, schools, higher education, sprawl and technological change, with consideration given to political, institutional and cultural factors. Students are required to attend hearings, meetings and other relevant functions associated with the development of public financial policy. Prerequisites: URST 299 and either junior standing or permission of the instructor.
L18 URST 4102 Latin America and the Rise of the Global South
The rise of the global south — and the reordering of global geopolitics, economics and cultural imaginaries — is characterized by progressive change and intense conflict. Economic growth coincides with the impacts of global warming, the assault on natural resources, the rise of new consumers and the entrenchment of deep inequalities. We also see the emergence of cultural and political formations that range from the horrific to the inspiring. Latin America is a central node of the new global south. Here history takes unpredictable turns in the face of declining U.S. hegemony, the economic growth of Brazil, legacies of militarism and political violence, a feverish attack on nature, resurgent economic nationalism, and defiant "anti-globalization" movements. Through close reading of contemporary ethnographies of Latin America we explore emergent cultural and political-economic processes in the region; we consider south-south articulations (theoretical, cultural, political-economic) between Latin America, China, Africa and India; and we reflect on the changing role, meaning and relationships of the United States in the region.
Same as L48 Anthro 4102
L18 URST 4134 The AIDS Epidemic: Inequalities, Ethnography and Ethics
In the year 2000, HIV became the world's leading infectious cause of adult death, and in the next 10 years, AIDS was expected to kill more people than all wars of the 20th century combined. As the global epidemic rages on, our greatest enemy in combating HIV/AIDS is not lack of knowledge or resources, but global inequalities and the conceptual frameworks with which we understand health, human interaction and sexuality. This course emphasizes the ethnographic approach for cultural analysis of responses to HIV/AIDS. Students explore the relationship between local communities and wider historical and economic processes, and theoretical approaches to disease, the body, ethnicity/race, gender, sexuality, risk, addiction, power and culture. Other topics covered include the cultural construction of AIDS and risk, government responses to HIV/AIDS, origin and transmission debates; ethics and responsibilities; drug testing and marketing; the making of the AIDS industry and "risk" categories; prevention and education strategies; interaction between biomedicine and alternative healing systems; and medical advances and hopes.
Same as L48 Anthro 4134
L18 URST 418 Studying the City: Approaches to Social Research
In this course we explore social science/social scientific research methods. The course is designed primarily for students majoring in urban studies. However, the research skills that students acquire can be applied to any substantive topic in the social sciences. The main goal of this course is that students develop the skills to independently design and execute high-quality social research, regardless of their substantive interests. To develop these skills we read about methods, assess published research from a methodological perspective, and complete original research projects.
L18 URST 4211 New Media Literacy and Popular Culture in Education
At the closing of the 20th century, the "digital turn" began to shape how individuals learn, communicate and interact with one another. Current and emerging media technologies have continued to change how individuals (youth and adults alike) gather information; consume, produce and disseminate texts; and participate in both local and global communities through print- and screen-based platforms such as email, blog, podcast and mash-ups, among others. In this course, we explore what we mean by technology, the various types and uses of technology and the relationship of technology to literacy and education. We begin with characteristics of "new media" and consequences of the digital revolution. Then, we examine conceptualizations of literacy in a historical context-from literacy as reading and writing to literacy as multimodality, convergence and participation. Finally, we shift our inquiry to investigate how new media literacies and technologies are shaping (and are shaped by) different forms of popular culture in United States and international contexts, including parts of Asia, Australia, Europe, Africa and North and South America. We make explicit the connections to education and explore possible directions for research and practice, including copyright and fair use issues present in educational settings. Readings, discussions and activities online and in actual communities culminate in individual- and class-based new media productions. Prerequisite: at least junior standing or permission of the instructor.
Same as L12 Educ 4211
L18 URST 4261 The Political Economy of Urban Education
Defining a political economy of urban education involves the examination of power and wealth and the manner in which they operate in urban settings. It requires analysis of the larger urban social and economic context and consideration of historical forces that have brought the schools to their present state. In this course, we consider various political and economic factors that have influenced and shaped urban education in the United States, drawing upon the extant literature on urban education and related social science disciplines to characterize and discuss them. A particular focus of this course is on the dynamic interrelationships among the political economy, urban education and social stratification.
Same as L12 Educ 4621
L18 URST 4280 History of Urban Schooling in the United States
This reading colloquium examines the history of urban schooling and school policy in the United States. Readings focus on the growing literature in the history of urban schooling and on primary source material. We explore urban schooling in general and we examine particular primary source material as well as particular cities and their school districts. Such districts may include New York, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, St. Louis, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Atlanta and others. The course has two goals: to develop a strong contextual understanding of the conditions of urban schooling, the history of urban school reform, and the debates over the purposes of urban schools; and to examine the ways historians have explored urban schooling in the U.S. Students should expect to read a book a week as well as primary source materials and occasional articles.
Same as L12 Educ 4280
L18 URST 4289 Neighborhoods, Schools, and Social Inequality
A major purpose of the course is to study the research and policy literature related to neighborhoods, schools and the corresponding opportunity structure in urban America. The course is informed by theoretical models drawn from economics, political science, sociology, anthropology, education and law. A major focus is to gain greater understanding of the experiences and opportunity structure(s) of urban dwellers, in general, and urban youth, in particular. While major emphasis is placed on data derived from the interface of urban environments and the corresponding institutions within them, the generational experiences of various ethnic groups complement the course foci.
Same as L12 Educ 4289
L18 URST 4315 Culture, Language and the Education of Black Students
This course examines the communicative patterns of what is called variously African-American language, Pan-African linguistic systems and Ebonics within the context of public school policy and practice. In addition to a review of the structural and pragmatic aspects of black speech, the course highlights relationships between controversies within the linguistic community, contrasting views of speech within black lay communities, public discourse, and educational policy. Students also conduct a field-based research project in accord with their particular interests.
Same as L12 Educ 4315
L18 URST 4361 Culture, Power and the State
This seminar surveys anthropological theory and ethnography of the nation-state. We will discuss how culture and power are interrelated in the formation of state institutions and ideologies, governance and violence, social and spatial inequalities, and citizen identities, daily lives, and movements for change. We'll read key theoretical works (Weber, Marx, Foucault, Gramsci, liberal political theory, feminism, and post-structuralism, among others) and contemporary ethnographies of the state. Anthropology's place in public debates on "culture" and violent crises of the state — from Iraq to the U.S. heartland — will be addressed at the end of the semester.
Same as L48 Anthro 4361
L18 URST 4511 Race, Ethnicity, and Culture: Qualitative Inquiry into Urban Education I
Drawing on traditional and recent advances in the field of qualitative studies, this course is the first in a series to examine ethnographic research at the interlocking domains of race, ethnicity, class, gender and culture. The emphasis in this course is on how these concepts are constructed in urban educational institutions. The course includes a field component that involves local elementary and/or middle schools.
Same as L90 AFAS 4511
L18 URST 4512 Environmental Policy
Course examines the relationship between environmental economics and environmental policy. The course focuses on air pollution, water pollution and hazardous wastes, with some attention given to biodiversity and global climate change. The course examines critically two prescriptions that economics usually endorses: (1) "balancing" of benefits against costs (e.g., benefit-cost analysis) and the use of risk analysis in evaluating policy alternatives; and (2) use of market incentives (e.g., prices, taxes or charges) or "property rights" instead of traditional command-and-control regulations to implement environmental policy. Prerequisite: Econ 1011.
Same as L11 Econ 451
L18 URST 453 Sociology of Education
This course provides an overview of sociological theory and research on education in contemporary U.S. society. Drawing from sociological perspectives, it covers the implications of schools and schooling for social inequality, mobility, and group relations. It examines major theoretical perspectives on the purpose and social organization of mass education in the United States, and topics related to the organization and function of schools, access to educational resources, and group disparities in school experiences and outcomes.
Same as L12 Educ 453B
L18 URST 455 Topics in Urban Studies
Prerequisites: URST 299 and senior standing.
Credit 3 units.
L18 URST 4601 Urban Economics
Economic function of the city and the role of the city in a national economy. Local decision-making; financing of local government expenditures. An analysis of selected urban problems, such as causes and effects of housing market segregation; decay and abandonment; landlord-tenant relations; crime; and urban transport systems. Prerequisite: Econ 4011.
Same as L11 Econ 460
L18 URST 4608 The Education of Black Children and Youth in the United States
This course provides an overview of the education of Black children and youth in the United States. Covering both pre- and post-Brown eras, this course applies a deep reading to the classic works of DuBois and Anderson as well as the more recent works of Kozol, Delpit, and Foster. The social, political, and historical contexts of education, as essential aspects of American and African-American culture and life, are placed in the foreground of course inquiries,
Same as L12 Educ 4608
L18 URST 461B Construction and Experience of Black Adolescence
This course examines the construct of black adolescence from the general perspectives of anthropology, sociology and psychology. It begins by studying the construct of black adolescence as an "invention" of the social and behavioral sciences. The course then draws upon narrative data, autobiography, literature and multimedia sources authored by black youth to recast black adolescence as a complex social, psychological, cultural and political phenomenon. This course focuses on the meaning-making experiences of urban-dwelling black adolescents and highlights these relations within the contexts of class, gender, sexuality and education.
Same as L90 AFAS 461B
L18 URST 462 Politics of Education
Politics is interpreted broadly to include not just government, but any situation in which people have to solve a problem or come to a decision. This course focuses on schools and the processes through which certain stories, identities and practices are promoted, and others, not.
Same as L12 Educ 462
L18 URST 4622 Labor and Labor Movements in Global History
Focusing on the period from mid-19th century (industrial revolution) until the present neoliberal capitalist era, this course analyzes working class formation, organization, collective action, and politics on a worldwide scale. It seeks to explore the connections between historical and contemporary workers' movements in the global North and global South, eschewing national perspectives and global/local dichotomies. Special attention is given to Latin American workers and labor movements. In particular, it examines the influence of immigration, the role of export workers, the impact of radical ideologies, the development of labor relations systems, the nature of informal work, and recent struggles for workers' control. The principal aim of this course is to introduce students to the key topics and themes pertaining to global labor history. These themes are varied and complex and range from workers' struggles.
Same as L97 IAS 4622
L18 URST 472 Topics in Growth and Development
This course highlights important empirical facts concerning growth and development in various countries at different development stages. Fundamental growth theory is then provided for explaining these facts systematically and for evaluating the consequences of commonly adopted development policies. Topics vary, but may include population, human capital and labor market development, R&D and innovation, finance and growth, modernization and industrial transformation, world income disparities and poverty problems, institutions and political economy issues, environmental and social factors, and international trade and economic integration. Prerequisites: Econ 4011 and Econ 4021.
Same as L11 Econ 472
L18 URST 476 The City in American Arts and Popular Culture, 1910-1940
From the mid-19th century forward, artists, writers, sociologists, and cultural critics have identified the city as the primary site of a vast array of historical changes associated with modernization. This course will explore the range of cultural responses to the new 20th-century city up to World War II. The American city was seen as both an incubator of difference, and of mass conformity and manipulation; a dynamic space in which to form fluid networks that catalyzed new forms of creativity, and a place of strangers and social alienation. We will trace the history of these polarized responses in the 20th-century arts and literature of the city, looking at the vibrant popular culture of film, vaudeville, and cross-dressing; new aesthetic forms such as collage and expressionism; and new urban subjects. Prerequisites: 300-level course in American 20th-century cultural history, American art, literature, or permission of instructor.
Same as L01 Art-Arch 475
L18 URST 4792 Globalization and National Politics
This seminar examines globalization and its interaction with national politics; the movement of ideas, capital, goods, services, production and people across national borders; and provides a skeletal framework for the global political economy. Politicians, policymakers and societies discover new opportunities, but also dilemmas as expanding interdependence challenge traditional notions of sovereignty and national policy autonomy.
Same as L97 IAS 4792
L18 URST 482 Senior Thesis in Urban Studies
This course is required for students to complete the degree requirements in urban studies. Students discuss research methods and make regular research reports both to the instructor and for other students.
Credit 3 units.
L18 URST 4872 Colonial Cities and the Making of Modernity
Massive urban growth has been a central result of the incorporation of many areas — both central and peripheral — into the global economy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Scholars have long theorized urbanization as a key component of modernity, but they have usually done so by looking at urbanization and modernization from the perspective of the West. This course investigates the character of cities in the colony and then uses these empirical and analytical entry points to examine critically some theories of modernity. The geographical focus of the course is primarily on cities in the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia.
Same as L22 History 4872
L18 URST 4882 Anthropology and Public Health
Anthropological approaches to public health practice and research; role of anthropology in public health systems; cross-cultural public health research; community vs. institutional bases of public health advocacy.
Same as L48 Anthro 4882
L18 URST 4883 The Political Economy of Health
This course reviews social science contributions to understanding health as a function of political and economic influences. Considers the ways in which personal health is affected by macrosocial processes. Examines effects of globalization, international development and political instability on the health of individuals. Examples drawn from the U.S. and international contexts. Prerequisite: junior standing or above.
Same as L48 Anthro 4883
L18 URST 4891 Education and Public Policy in the United States
This course takes a triangulated approach to the field of public policy as it relates to education and social problems. First, the course emphasizes theories of public policy that frame the field of policy studies. Major questions extending from this course feature include: What is public policy, policy behavior, its defining processes/features, and what social function does it serve? Second, the course emphasizes the skills related to the exercise of policy analysis. These skills include the crafting of technical documents within the field of public policy (e.g., a policy brief) and the application of scientific methods to the exploration of social problems/governmental actions. Likely issues related to this course feature include the use of scientific knowledge in political arenas, engagement with stakeholders and the intended/unintended consequences of policy science to political decision-making. Third, this course simulates the policy-making context through students' participation in mock congressional testimonies. These focal areas become central to an understanding of four social concerns: school desegregation following the Brown decisions; affirmative action in higher education; Head Start programs; and/or the ESEA Act of 1965, also known as No Child Left Behind. Educational opportunity, achievement inequality and social change are the primary interests that link these course features.
Same as L12 Educ 489
L18 URST 4892 The Science and Politics of Testing in the United States
Why do tests permeate American Society? Tests have been integral to the decision-making process in many venues of American culture — e.g., immigration opportunities, voting rights, college admissions, workforce considerations, special education placement, educational reform and graduation requirements. The credibility of these decisions depends upon the claim that a particular test is a scientific instrument and relevant to the decision-making process. This claim is worthy of study. The purpose of this course is twofold. The first purpose is to examine how the nexus of science and politics influence testing practices in American society. The second purpose is to explore how testing practices influence the culture of schools, civil liberties, the work place and public discourse about merit.
Same as L12 Educ 4891
L18 URST 498 Senior Capstone: Seminar in Urban Studies
Credit 3 units.
L18 URST 4981 Advanced Seminar: Historical Perspectives on Human Rights
This course offers a historical perspective on the modern international human rights regime, using materials drawn from diplomatic, legal, political, and cultural studies. Successful completion of this seminar involves designing, researching, and writing a 25-30 page paper on a historically oriented, human-rights-related topic of your choice.
Same as L22 History 4981
L18 URST 499 Independent Work for Senior Honors
Credit variable, maximum 3 units. EN: S
L18 URST 4991 Senior Honors Thesis in Urban Studies
This course is required for students seeking college honors through urban studies. Students discuss research methods and make regular research reports, both to the instructor and for other students. Prerequisites: satisfactory standing as a candidate for senior honors and permission of thesis director.
Credit 3 units. EN: S
L18 URST 4992 The Business of Us All: In/equality in Practice and Theory
This course uses a transdisciplinary approach to discuss in/equality and its interrelated topics of inequality, inequity and social justice. While the focus is on the U.S. predominantly, lessons learned from our global partners are important components of our discussions. The course will emphasize the implications of our findings for other ethnic/racial minorities around the world. Equality speaks to issues of priority, fairness and impartiality. On the other hand, inequality is defined as marked difference among individuals or groups of individuals in the distribution of social goods. Inequity, which considers bias, discrimination and injustice in distributive systems, pushes the discussion further. As the various forms of social, political and economic inequalities are mutually reinforced, we examine economic inequality, residential segregation and housing quality; dis/investment in neighborhoods and communities; resource allocation to low income, city and predominantly ethnic minority schools; academic underachievement of minority youth; access to and provision of appropriate health care; curtailment of social welfare programs; the presentation of stereotypical images of persons of color in the media and school curricula; morbidity, mortality, and longevity rates for persons of color; environmental hazards; the surge in incarceration related to substance abuse and escalating criminal prosecution, as well as discriminatory behavior of police and judges. All of the foregoing is made worse by race and gender status variables. Such factors cannot be considered inconsequential to social im/mobility and equality in the larger society. The collateral damage borne by the intergenerational transfer of social im/mobility and in/equality to future generations are integral to course discussions.
Same as I50 InterD 4992