Anthropology investigates issues such as human evolution, origins of civilization, gender, ethnic relations, social institutions, medical anthropology, and the impact of the modern world on human societies everywhere. Sociocultural anthropology is a good foundation for careers with an international focus, and those such as education, medicine, and business, that require an understanding of human cultural behavior. Biological anthropology provides background for work in zoology, conservation, and public health venues. Archaeological anthropology is particularly useful for historical and cultural approaches to institutions.

To stay up to date with events and news in the Department of Anthropology at Washington University, visit our website.

Contact:Kirsten Jacobsen
Phone:314-935-7770
Email:kjacobsen@wustl.edu
Website:http://ucollege.wustl.edu/programs/undergraduate/bachelors-anthropology

Bachelor of Science in Anthropology

All University College undergraduate students must satisfy the same general-education requirements.
 
Requirements specific to this major include:
 
  • At least 6 units from the introductory Anthropology sequence:
Anthro 150Introduction to Human Evolution3
Anthro 160Introduction to Cultural Anthropology3
Anthro 190Introduction to Archaeology3
  • 15 additional units of course work in the department (must include 12 advanced units)
  • 12 additional units in social sciences (must include 3 advanced units)

Anthropology majors are encouraged to also take a range of courses in the humanities and the natural sciences.

Visit online course listings to view semester offerings for U69 Anthro.


U69 Anthro 100 Introduction to Anthropology

Anthropology is a field that seeks to synthesize and integrate all aspects of what it means to be human, including the study of human diversity across time and space. Anthropologists are collectively interested in studying humans from a holistic perspective, including cultural, linguistic and biological anthropology and archaeology. This course aims to introduce students to basic concepts within anthropology, integrating the perspectives and methods of each of the subfields into our approach. We will examine how culture, environment, and biology are intertwined in the variation seen within humans both past and present. Topics addressed will include aspects of human evolution and variation, nonhuman primates, Paleolithic cultures, subsistence strategies, kinship, political organization, the rise and fall of complex societies, religion, language, globalization, and anthropology in the present and future. This course is a fully online course.

Credit 3 units. UColl: OLI


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U69 Anthro 150 Introduction to Human Evolution

The fossil evidence for human evolution, the genetics of human variation and evolution, the study of living nonhuman primates, and the fossil record and its interpretation.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 160 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology

Equality, hierarchy, and stratification in tribal, peasant, and industrializing societies from past and present cultures. Comparison of the ways in which different cultures legitimize social difference; myth and ritual in relation to the social order and social process; patterns of authority and protest; theories of sociocultural change and evolution.

Credit 3 units. UColl: NW


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U69 Anthro 1751 Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology

This course provides an introduction to the theoretical foundations of linguistic anthropology, the study of language use in cultural contexts. The readings, lectures, and discussions will focus on linguistic anthropology's integration of theory and ethnographic practice.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 190 Introduction to Archaeology

Archaeology plays a critical and unique role in understanding the human past. Through study of the methods and theories of archaeology, and a survey of important firsts in the human past, this course introduces students to the way archaeologists use material culture to reconstruct and understand human behavior. Chronologically ordered case studies from around the globe are used to look at social, ecological, and cultural issues facing humans from the earliest times to the present. Students gain practice reconstructing the past through hands-on participation in two 1-hour labs focusing on lithics and animal bones. By the end of the course, students are expected to be able to think critically about how the past is presented, and why, and the importance of the past as it relates to the present and future.

Credit 3 units. A&S IQ: LCD Arch: SSC


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U69 Anthro 190B Introduction to Archaeology

Archaeology plays a critical and unique role in understanding the human past. Through study of the methods and theories of archaeology, and a survey of important firsts in the human past, this course introduces students to the way archaeologists use material culture to reconstruct and understand human behavior. Chronologically ordered case studies from around the globe are used to look at social, ecological, and cultural issues facing humans from the earliest times to the present. Students gain practice reconstructing the past through hands-on participation in two 1-hour labs focusing on lithics and animal bones. By the end of the course, students are expected to be able to think critically about how the past is presented, and why, and the importance of the past as it relates to the present and future.
Same as L48 Anthro 190B

Credit 3 units. A&S: SS A&S IQ: SSC Arch: SSC Art: SSC BU: BA EN: S


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U69 Anthro 204 Anthropology and the Modern World

What cultural anthropologists are learning about major issues of our time: cultures facing destruction, communal societies, sex roles, poverty, political repression in the Third World — sharpening the study of our own culture.

Credit 3 units. BU: BA, ETH


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U69 Anthro 2091 Achievements of Past Civilizations

This course is a selective survey of some milestone achievements of past civilizations that have a far-reaching impact on our modern society. Using examples from archaeological sites around the world this class will explore how these achievements have changed the developmental trajectory of humanities. A feature of this course is that it will not only discuss the achievements of the so-called cradles of civilization but also those areas that receive much less scholarly attention in the study of ancient civilizations, such as Central Asia and Sub-Sahara Africa. Besides learning about archaeological facts, students who take this course will also get exposure to basic archaeological theories and methods. Some topics we will cover in this class include the domestication of crops and animals, the emergence of early cities, the invention of metallurgy, and the arrival of state societies.

Credit 3 units. UColl: NW


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U69 Anthro 216 Ancient Tools and Technology

This course explores the origins of important technological developments of the past, from both the perspective of modern archaeologists and ancient tool users themselves. From the earliest stone tools to the origins of metal working, the class will be organized around a technological theme. Specific topics include projectile technologies, pottery, and agricultural strategies. We will discuss the archaeological evidence for the emergence of different technologies and their role in major debates in archaeology. We also will examine organization of production, artifact style, and the ways in which tool use is integrated into social and cultural systems.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 235 Introductory Statistics for the Health Sciences

This course covers material commonly presented in introductory statistics classes from a health science perspective, with some additional techniques from medical research. Topics include exploratory data analysis, hypothesis testing, probability, t-tests and ANOVA, correlation and regression, chi-square, diagnostic performance, and survival analysis. In-class examples cover medical issues, and there are supplementary readings from professional journals. There will be a computer lab in which students use a statistics package to analyze research data. In addition to mastery of statistical concepts, considerable emphasis will be placed on understanding how to interpret information in journal articles and how to carry out research.
Same as U86 HCARE 235

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 260 Topics in Health and Community

A survey of current topics in community health and medicine, with an emphasis upon social science approaches to issues affecting medicine and medical care in contemporary U.S. society. Issues include ethical debates in health care delivery, social stratification and health, access to health services, and factors affecting community wellness at local, national, and global levels. Presented as a weekly series of topical presentations by community health experts from the St. Louis area. Required for students enrolled in the Medicine and Society Program, and also open to other interested students.

Credit 1 unit.


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U69 Anthro 280 Introduction to Anthropological Genetics

Anthropology is the study of humans, past and present. In the post-genomic era, we now have the capability to uncover the genetic basis of being human. This course will examine the intersection of genetics and anthropology. Students will be taught the basic principles of molecular evolutionary analysis and population genetics that are applied to the study of humans and other primates. In addition, students will learn how genetic data can supplement the archaeological, linguistic, cultural, paleoanthropological, and comparative primate research of traditional anthropology. Specifically, we will survey (1) methods of measuring and drawing inferences from human genetic variation, (2) theories of modern human origins and peopling of the world, and (3) recent advances in studying the genetic underpinnings for human disease. The first portion of every class will be devoted to lecture while the latter half will be a discussion of the assigned articles. There will be one in-class laboratory in which we explore some of the electronic resources available to anthropological geneticists. Finally, we will spend part of one class engaged in lively scientific debate over the question: are modern humans still evolving? Students should leave this class with a basic understanding of the contribution of genetics to the field of anthropology and how anthropological knowledge can illuminate genetic findings.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 300 Independent Study

Credit variable, maximum 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3014 Wining and Dining in the Classical World

The focus of this course will be food culture in Greek and Roman societies from the Archaic to the late Roman period. However, foodways from adjacent contemporary cultures will also be briefly examined. Sources will include textual evidence, as well as ethnographic studies of ancient people, iconographic and archaeological evidence, specifically osteological and botanical remains from archaeological sites. Experimental studies will be conducted in class to augment the learning experience of students.
Same as U02 Classics 3031

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 302 People and Cultures of the Middle East

This course will introduce the cultural diversity and unity of the peoples of the Middle East. The emphasis is on historical and ethnological relationships, social and political structure, religious pluralism and contemporary youth issues. We will explore the lived experiences of the peoples in the modern nation-states of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian Territories, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran. We will access this material through short stories, poetry, biographies, essays, videos, blogs, and political and anthropological reports.
Same as L48 Anthro 302B

Credit 3 units. A&S: SS, CD A&S IQ: LCD, SSC Arch: SSC Art: SSC BU: IS


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U69 Anthro 3033 Culture and Society through Fiction

This course explores human experience from the perspective of writers from different historical periods and cultures. We will use novels, films, discussions, and papers to analyze the histories, cultural practices, beliefs, and traditions of diverse cultural groups. We will consider historical and contemporary issues, including struggles for civil rights, questions of assimilation and identity, changing institutions, and cultural evolution.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3037 Animals and Monsters in Antiquity

The mythologies of dragons, giants, and sea-monsters can be better understood through the study of human/animal relations. From the early fossil hunters of prehistoric periods to modern day shepherds and mariners, this course examines the fascinating bond between humans and other species from the Paleolithic period in Europe and Western Asia to the present. Jungian exploration of the human psyche delves deeper into the phenomenon that produces demons in each individual and in every culture. The spiritual and secular uses of animals are discussed, as well as cross-cultural manifestations of monsters. Emphasis will be placed on the Archaic to Classical period in Greece when ancient testimonia, myth, epics, and iconography were particularly rich. Following this course, students should develop insight into the complex symbiotic relationship of humans and animals. Students should also be able to recognize and interpret the creation and manifestation of myths and mythological creatures through understanding cultural, psychological, and environmental contexts. They will also develop an awareness of their own demons and how their existence relates to other humans and the cosmos.
Same as U02 Classics 3032

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3038 Ancient Technologies

This course is designed to examine technologies developed in the ancient world, from Prehistoric to Roman times. The course is structured around the use of key materials such as wood, textile, stone, clay, and metal. Larger themes, such as agriculture, warfare, and seafaring, combine these technologies to fulfill necessary and desired functions. The main focus of this course is Greek and Roman technologies, though some references will be made to adjacent cultures, such as Mesopotamian hunting, Egyptian engineering, Scythian tattooing, and the foodways and medicines of Germanic tribes. After the first two sessions, class will meet every alternate week for this hybrid course. Two meetings will include field trips to make pottery and observe cuttlebone metal pendant molding at Craft Alliance (material costs included in the fees), and examine manufacturing techniques from real artifacts at the Saint Louis Art Museum.
Same as U02 Classics 3036

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 307 Human Variations: Races and Ethnic Groups

Diversity of living peoples according to modern physical anthropology and population genetics. The variation both within and between human populations is used to examine the concept of race and the genetic relationships among the major groups of man.

Credit 3 units. BU: SCI


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U69 Anthro 3093 Anthropology of Modern Latin America

A survey of current issues in the anthropological study of culture, politics, and change across contemporary Latin American and the Caribbean. Topics include machismo and feminismo, the drug war, race and mestizaje, yuppies and revolutionaries, ethnic movements, pop culture, violence, multinational business, and the cultural politics of U.S.-Latin American relations. Attention will be given to the ways that anthropology is used to understand complex cultural and social processes in a region thoroughly shaped by globalization.
Same as L48 Anthro 3093

Credit 3 units. A&S: SS, CD A&S IQ: LCD, SSC Arch: SSC Art: SSC BU: IS


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U69 Anthro 310C Ancient Civilizations of the New World

An examination of the Inca empire in Peru, and the Maya and Aztec empires in Mexico through the inquiry into the roots, development, form, and evolutionary history of pre-Colombian civilization in each region from its earliest times to the rise of the classic kingdoms. Examples of respective artistic accomplishments will be presented and discussed.
Same as L48 Anthro 310C

Credit 3 units. A&S: TH, CD A&S IQ: HUM, LCD Arch: SSC BU: HUM


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U69 Anthro 3111 Family, Kinship, and Marriage

This course provides a cross-cultural examination of family and kinship relations. By examining case studies along with theoretical approaches, students are introduced to variation in family form and function both across different societies and within them. Issues examined include incest taboos, polygyny, bridewealth payments, divorce, childcare, and household organization. Case studies will be drawn from various parts of the world, including the U.S., India, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

Credit 3 units. BU: BA


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U69 Anthro 312 Ancient Civilizations of the Old World

The development of the earliest complex societies in the Old World; emphasis on Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3124 Persians, Babylonians, and Assyrians: Archaeology of Ancient Mesopotamia

The valleys of the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers are often collectively referred to as "the cradle of civilization." Many cultural "firsts" emerged from this area: the first writing, the first state-level societies, the first cities, and the first agricultural- and pastoral-based economies. The societies of the Tigris and the Euphrates also played a strong influential role in the development of the societies around them. Given these particular features, the study of the ancient societies of Near East can offer insight into the development of state-level society in general, and the ancient cultures of the Near East in particular.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 314 Prehistory of North America

A study of predecessors of the Eskimo, Northwest Coast Indians, Pueblo dwellers, mound builders, and other North American Indian groups and the development of pre-Columbian culture in North America.

Credit 3 units. UColl: NW


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U69 Anthro 3143 Plants in the Life of New World Cultures: Past and Present Perspectives

This course looks at the diverse ways in which past cultures in the New World domesticated, processed, consumed, and ritualized plants. Looking at pre-Columbian societies, we will study how certain plants native to the New World were used in daily and sacred activities, and how some are featured in myths and creation stories. We look at the period after the Columbian exchange to understand how colonialism in the New World and the introduction of Old World plants impacted societies in the New World. We will also consider how some of these New World plants shape the world we live in today. We will study both archaeological and historical perspectives, and learn to evaluate archaeologic evidence that relates to the plant world in the Americas.

Credit 3 units. UColl: NW


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U69 Anthro 3161 Prehistory of Europe

Covers the cultural sequence from the Earth's earliest inhabitants up until the historic records. Includes such topics as Upper Paleolithic cave art, the migration of Indo-European groups, the spread of agriculture and megalithic cultures (including Stonehenge).

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3164 Origins of Chinese Civilization and Arts

This course traces Chinese civilization from its formative period, extending from the Neolithic period (10,000 BP to circa 3000 BCE), through the Bronze Age (from circa 3000 BCE to the Shang and Zhou dynasties) to the early dynastic period (Qin and Han dynasties). We cover a wide variety of contributions and achievements from early Chinese civilization, such as bronze vessels and metallurgy, porcelain, jade, writing systems, martial arts, and cuisine, as we become familiar with the history and material culture of the critical formative period of Chinese civilization.

Credit 3 units. UColl: NW


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U69 Anthro 318 The Prehistory of Africa

An overview of cultural development in Africa from approximately two million years ago until about 1000 AD; focus on research and interpretive problems in a case-study approach to periods ranging from the earliest archaeological traces to the spread of Bantu languages.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 320 Anthropology of Sex Roles

A multidisciplinary, cross-cultural analysis of the status and role of men and women in preindustrial and industrial, non-Western and Western societies. Topics: human evolution, uses/abuses of biology in sex-role differentiation, political economy, revolutionary politics, racism and sexism, the role of religion.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3206 Global Gender Issues

This course compares the life experiences of women and men in societies throughout the world. We will discuss the evidence regarding the universal subordination of women, and examine explanations that propose to situate women's and men's personality attributes, roles, and responsibilities in the biological or cultural domains. In general, through readings, films and lectures, the class will provide a cross-cultural perspective on ideas regarding gender and how gendered meanings, practices, and performances serve as structuring principles in society.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3212 The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt

This course introduces students to the archaeology of both prehistoric and Dynastic Egypt. The first part of the course focuses on modern archaeological techniques, including techniques developed in Egypt, as well as the earliest archaeological materials which pre-date Pharaonic Egypt. The second half of the course focuses on Dynastic Egypt, and includes presentations on the history, life, gods, religion, and architecture of this ancient civilization. We examine some of the better-known aspects of Egyptian civilization, including the pyramids, hieroglyphic writing, and mummification.

Credit 3 units. UColl: NW


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U69 Anthro 3215 Food, Culture, Power

The foods we eat, the way we get them, the way we produce them, and the way in which we eat them speak volumes about our beliefs, our technology, our understanding of how the world works, and our ability to function within it. Food connects consumers and producers through vast global supply chains that enable cheap fresh food year-round for some but require others to live on desperately low wages. Throughout the world, the way we eat has serious consequences for how we make a living, manage our environment, and stay healthy. This course is designed to make students think critically about the food they eat and the way it is produced. This course is divided into four parts and each week will have a thematic focus. We will begin at the beginning — the origins of agriculture, modern hunting and gathering, and pastoralism. What did we evolve to eat? Is agriculture "better" than hunting and gathering? What does it mean to say that? The third section of the class will introduce us to the commodity chain — the way by which people who do not produce food themselves eat. How have the history and politics of our economy shaped the way that we eat globally? How has food been used to understand other cultures? Then we will discuss the views of food and agriculture that have informed our modern perception of food and production. Are there too many people? What does the future of food look like? Why do some foods make us nauseous while people love them? We will conclude by examining the recent wave of interest in alternatives to that system, questioning how food came to take such a prominent place in our society after such a long period of neglect.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3225 Global, Regional, and Local Community

Influence of transnational social, economic, and political relations on local communities. International economic processes, including the influence of multinational corporations and informal economies, sociopolitical movements (religious, ethnic, etc.) that transcend nation-state borders; policy agendas and tactics of the great powers.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3255 Religious Minorities of South Asia

South Asia is unusually diverse in religious traditions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Judaism, "tribal" religions, and all branches of Christianity. This course examines the history of religious minorities in the various countries of South Asia in relation to their religious majorities. We will examine the relationship between religious identity and ethnic, national, and transnational identities.
Same as U66 RelSt 3255

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3281 Introduction to Global Health

This course provides a general introduction to the field of public health. It examines the philosophy, history, organization, functions, activities, and results of public health research and practice. Case studies include infectious and chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and reproductive health, food safety and nutrition, environmental health, and global public health. Students are encouraged to look at health issues from a systemic and population level perspective, and to think critically about health systems and problems, especially health disparities and health care delivery to diverse populations. No background in anthropology or public health is required.

Credit 3 units. BU: SCI


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U69 Anthro 3282 Introduction to Global Health

This course provides a general introduction to the field of public health. It examines the philosophy, history, organization, functions, activities, and results of public health research and practice. Case studies include infectious and chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and reproductive health, food safety and nutrition, environmental health, and global public health. Students are encouraged to look at health issues from a systemic and population level perspective, and to think critically about health systems and problems, especially health disparities and health care delivery to diverse populations. No background in anthropology or public health is required.
Same as L48 Anthro 3283

Credit 3 units. A&S: SS A&S IQ: LCD, SSC Art: SSC BU: IS EN: S


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U69 Anthro 329 Anthropology of Religion

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3293 Religion and Society

We will take a broad and practice-oriented view of 'religion', including uttering spells, sacrificing to a god, healing through spirit possession, as well as praying and reciting scripture. We will consider religious practices in small-scale societies as well as those characteristic of forms of Judaism, Islam, Christianity, and other broadly-based religions. We give special attention to the ways religions shape politics, law, war, as well as everyday life in modern societies.
Same as L48 Anthro 3293

Credit 3 units. A&S: SS A&S IQ: SSC Art: SSC BU: ETH


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U69 Anthro 330 Experimental Archaeology

Archaeological research bearing on the interrelationship of cultural behavior and associated material remains with emphasis on the correlation of ethnographic and archaeological data. Prerequisite: U69-190, 310, 312, or 314.


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U69 Anthro 3306 Introduction to Forensic Anthropology

This course is an introduction to the field of forensic anthropology, which involves the analysis of human skeletal remains within the context of a legal investigation. We will explore how forensic anthropologists use their knowledge of human osteology, dentition, skeletal variation, and pathology to identify human remains. Specifically students will learn how to attribute sex, age, ancestry, and stature to skeletal material as well as how to establish the forensic context, estimate time since death, crime scene investigation, trauma identification, and recovery scene methods. A number of invited guest speakers will expose students to the multidisciplinary nature of this field. We will also discuss the application of forensic anthropology to human rights issues. This course will involve both lecture and hands-on labs during which students will be working with skeletal materials.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 333 Culture and Health

A survey of cultural dimension in health, disease, wellness, illness, healing, curing, as seen in selected alternative medical traditions. Shamanism, Ayurveda, Traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy, chiropractic, and others surveyed and compared with conventional biomedicine. Lectures, video case studies, approximately eight textbooks.

Credit 3 units. UColl: NW


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U69 Anthro 336 Culture and Identity

Culture and diversity; cultural relativism and its contradictions; custom and habits; the construction and maintenance of norms; communication, symbol, sign, and intersubjectivity; symbolic interaction; rhetoric and the definition of social situations; societal means of fabricating distinctions (e.g., race, tribe, ethnic group, nationality, sect group).

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 337 Culture, Politics, and Social Organization

Evolution of political systems and social organization in small-scale as well as complex societies. Theoretical and empirical examination of human social and political organization in light of historical processes, human agency, and cultural context.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3385 The Internet, Politics, and Society

This course examines how the internet is transforming the way people around the world participate in politics and define themselves as political actors. We will look at specific controversies in online politics such as the Wikileaks scandal, Iran's "Twitter revolution," political blogging in the United States, and the "Great Firewall of China," as well as investigate broader questions of how people obtain knowledge, communicate, and mobilize in the digital age. Students will be taught to think critically about the internet as a communicative medium and to comparatively analyze how it is employed in different cultural contexts. Topics to be covered include: national and transnational political movements; state secrets and political transparency; dictatorship and revolution; media and censorship; activism and mobilization; memory and knowledge; and digital personhood. Students will be required to write brief responses to weekly readings and to complete an original research project on digital politics.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3401 Anthropology of Media

An introduction to the roles played by media in culture and society, focusing on ethnographic studies of mass media production and consumption. Topics include indigenous media, cultural globalization, reception theory, Islamic media, and online communities.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3414 Quantitative Methods and Applications in Archaeology

The goal of this course is to adequately approach quantification issues in archaeological research situations. Potential and limitations of quantitative methods and applications in specific archaeological situations and case studies will be presented and discussed. Topics will range from data exploratory methods to evaluating statistical hypotheses and connecting proximal to ultimate questions through middle-range research. Data analysis will include specific examples from lithics, ceramics, paleoethnobotanical, zooarchaeological, settlement patterns, and stratigraphic, specialized research. Participants will use assigned datasets as well as their own datasets to discuss and apply different treatments and customize adequate solutions for specific research questions. The class will include a balanced combination of lectures and discussion sections. Readings will complement classic and cutting-edge archaeological science case studies.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 342 Anthropology through the Arts

This course provides an overview of selected phenomena from prehistoric times to the present illustrating how the arts and society interact. Our primary focus is on the visual arts, including fine arts and film. We will explore the the process that leads to creativity in the individual. The course includes field trips to local cultural institutions.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3421 Becoming Human

Paleolithic cave paintings, elaborate burials, engravings, and figurines have long been celebrated by scholars and the public alike as some of the earliest evidence of human artistic expression. This course will survey the evolution of Paleolithic art and symbolic behaviors among Homo sapiens and closely related species such as the Neanderthals. We will explore explanations for the origin(s) of symbolic expression and spend some time situating the evidence within its appropriate archaeological contexts. We will then investigate the many possible meanings and functions of Paleolithic symbolic objects (e.g., personal ornaments, figurines, rock art, burial goods, etc.) as well as explore the range of technologies and actions involved in creative expression. Some topics covered include: "shamanic" interpretations of Paleolithic art, the so-called "Venus" figurines, the origins and elaboration of human burial, rites of passage, and the diversity of Paleolithic rock art. Students will gain a deeper understanding of the symbolic underpinnings that make us human through a mixture of hands-on activities, projects, and discussion.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3422 American Indian Art, Symbol and Meaning

An introduction to the arts among a broad range of native peoples who inhabited North, Middle, and South America. Course begins with basic concepts of art and anthropology. Emphasis is on the iconography found in various art styles, particularly the prehistoric rock carvings and paintings left by Native Americans throughout the New World. Oral traditions and myths found in the ethnographic record provide fascinating associations and interpretations.

Credit 3 units. UColl: NW


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U69 Anthro 3423 Body Art/Body Modification Across Cultures

All cultures practice one form or another of body modification. It can be in the form of face or body painting, piercing, tattooing, scarring, or re-shaping. Body modification is usually done to indicate social position, family, marital status, identity with a particular ethnic, age, or gender group, perform a rite of passage such as puberty, ward off or invoke the spirits, or send a message. This course explores body art and body modification in several world cultures -- including our own.

Credit 3 units. UColl: NW


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U69 Anthro 3433 Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies in Africa

Violence in African societies has often been labeled "tribal" or "ethnic," but the ethnic dimension of these and all contemporary African wars and conflicts is just one small part. Drawing on case studies, ethnographies, journal and newspaper articles, novels, and films we will explore the very complicated nature of conflict and post-conflict settings and societies around the African continent. From various ethnographic, social scientific and theoretical perspectives, we will explore the processes leading to large-scale violence and war, to crisis management and intervention in these circumstances, and to the small and large-scale efforts toward peace-making, healing, and community rebuilding.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 345 Peoples and Cultures of Native North America

Broad survey of Native American societies north of Mexico between the time of European contact and the present, from an anthropological perspective. Social and political organization, subsistence, gender roles, religion, impacts of European and white American expansion, and efforts of Indian and Inuit people to preserve and adapt their traditions under control by dominant outside governments. Emphasis on comprehending the diversity of Native North American societies, understanding factors causing change since initial European contact, recognizing biases in popular and scholarly thinking, and discussing critical issues facing Native American communities today.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 347 Ancient Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley

Study of the peoples in North America who built mounds and other earthen structures beginning more than 4000 years ago; why they erected earthworks; what the structures were used for; how they varied through time and across space; and what significance they had to members of society.
Same as L48 Anthro 347B

Credit 3 units. A&S: SS, CD Art: SSC BU: BA


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U69 Anthro 3471 Archaeology of the St. Louis Region

This course introduces students to archaeology of the St. Louis region and explores the cultures of its early inhabitants, from 12,000 years ago through the 19th century. We study a number of very important archaeological sites in the region, including Mastodon State Park, where artifacts of human manufacture were found in direct association with extinct mastodons dating to about 12,000 years ago, and Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site (a World Heritage Site) in Illinois, dating to the Mississippian period AD 1050-1350. We also examine methods and theories used by archaeologists to understand archaeological remains.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3476 Archeologies of Graffiti from Antiquity to the Present

The modern story of graffiti — revolving around social, economic, and political contexts such as bathroom stalls, subways and alleys steeped with urine and trash, decrepit buildings and train cars situated in less reputable areas of cities and towns — leads people to associate it with antisocial behaviors, dissent, and the vandalism of public and private property. However, some people consider graffiti as a legitimate form of art, communication, and a somewhat anonymous expression of current social climates. The disparity between these two perspectives has provided a great deal to study for social scientists. However, a consideration of graffiti's simple definition — words or drawings etched or painted on some surface in a public place — leads us to recognize that feats of graffiti originate way before the inner-city movements of the 1970s. In this class we will draw upon a range of studies from archaeology, anthropology, sociology, art, and history to broadly explore the creation and meaning of graffiti from antiquity to the present. Our goal is to learn how to examine the form, function, and context of graffiti across cultures and through time, with regard to the circumstances of its creation. In doing so, we aspire to better understand what lies behind the human urge to leave a mark. Prerequisite: Introduction to Archaeology.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 351 Africa in the Modern World

This course is about current concerns and issues affecting the cultural, economic, political, social, and religious change in Africa and how these processes are in turn informed and shaped by events and transformations taking place in the modern world. The issues to be discussed in this course include: political reform and the clamor for democratic governance, legal/constitutional issues, cross-national and national conflicts, refugee and street children problems, population, food production and agricultural policies, and gender sensitivity. The implications and relevance of the issues discussed on urban and rural development concerns will also be examined to broaden the understanding of factors shaping Africa's development process as well as its role, multiple connections, and expectations in the modern world.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3612 Population and Society

This review of population processes and their social ramifications begins with an introduction to the basic terminology, concepts, and methods of population studies, followed by a survey of human population trends through history. The course then investigates biological and social dimensions of marriage and childbearing, critically examines family planning policies, deals with the social impacts of epidemics and population ageing, and looks at connections between population movements and sociocultural changes. The overall objective of the course is to understand how population processes are not just biological in nature, but are closely related to social, cultural, political, and economic factors.

Credit 3 units. BU: IS


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U69 Anthro 3613 Paleoecology

This is a survey of the principles and applications of paleoecology, the relationship between ancient organisms and their environments, as it relates to primate and human evolution. Topics include taphonomy, the reconstruction of ancient environments, behavior and communities, biogeography, and the ecological context of extinction. Students will gain an understanding of the large-scale trends in diversity and ecology that have affected the evolution of human and nonhuman primates. Prerequisite: Anthropology 150 or instructor permission.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3621 Anthropology of Human Birth

This course will examine the interaction between human biology and culture in relation to childbirth. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the cultural challenges posed by the physiology of human reproduction, the ways various cultures have attempted to meet those challenges, and the resultant consequences that this has had for women's lives. The course will draw on material from human anatomy and embryology, paleoanthropology, clinical obstetrics, public health, social anthropology, the history of medicine, and contemporary bioethics.
Same as L48 Anthro 3621

Credit 3 units. A&S: SS A&S IQ: LCD, SSC Art: SSC BU: ETH EN: S


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U69 Anthro 3663 Primate Anatomy

This course is an exploration of the relationship between anatomical form and function in nonhuman primates. The course is designed to demonstrate how the primate body form is adapted to its many functions with an emphasis on adaptations to diet and locomotion. The course will primarily lecture with an additional lab component to emphasize the diversity of form and function within the nonhuman primates.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3665 Observing Animal Behavior at the St. Louis Zoo

This course is an introduction to methods for the collection of behavioral data in studies of animal behavior. Students will be trained in the design of research projects and the analysis and interpretation of behavioral data. Students will learn how different methods are used to answer specific questions in animal behavior research. Research will be conducted at the St. Louis Zoo.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3667 Primate Social Behavior

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3691 Kill Assessment: An Investigation into Death, Genocide, and Other Forms of Violence

This course analyzes violence as an integral component of culture and social relations, rather than as random acts which are marginal to society. We consider different types of violence — physical, intersubjective, structural and symbolic, and focus on its complex cultural, social, and structural manifestations. We study specific examples which span different historical time periods, regions of the world, scales of experience and disciplinary paradigms. Examples include state violence and genocide in Guatemala, torture in Chile and Argentina, structural and economic violence in Latin America, murder and the alienated work of serial killers in the U.S., violence and black humor, hip-hop aesthetics in Brazil, violence in new Brazilian cinema, and violence and care in neoliberal Chile. We also explore how violence becomes an aesthetic object, a commodity, and a valued resource for cultural production and consumption. This multifaceted approach helps us to evaluate particular anthropological contributions to our understandings of violence.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 376 Warriors, Merchants, Monks, and Courtesans: Ancient Narratives of Globalization in Google Earth

This course examines the history of globalization through the texts and narrative accounts of those who lived and traveled along the trade routes of the Old World. Using hands-on tutorials and projects in Google Earth, we will examine how day-to-day local interactions and the experiences of individuals contributed to broader cultural exchanges and the shaping of ancient cosmopolitan centers. The course will cover four broad anthropological themes related to Old World history and globalization in conjunction with weekly lessons in Google Earth: globalization; culture and power; the intersection of commerce, politics, and religion; and the impact of climate and geography on history.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 377 Peoples and Cultures of South Asia

An introduction to contemporary societies and cultures of the South Asian subcontinent including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Topics include religion and ritual, work, family organization, concepts of person, caste and gender, the cultural impact of colonialism, and political/religious conflict. The course will examine ethnographic and historical writings on these topics for two purposes: to gain basic knowledge about the peoples of the area and to consider the impact of anthropological theory on that knowledge.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3771 Aspects of Indian Society: Myth and Reality

This course attempts an understanding of some aspects and institutions of Indian society, questioning common misconceptions regarding these. The nature of the Indian village, caste, and family are examined with a view to dispel common misconceptions about them. The nature and consequences of industrialization and urbanization in the Indian context are examined in the context of Western theories on the subjects.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3773 Culture and Society in East Asia

This course presents an overview of cultures and contemporary social/political changes in East Asia. In Western society, East Asia has often been viewed as a place of enduring cultural identities, but it has also been a region of one of the world's most dynamic and rapid transformations. In this course, we'll examine both the continuity and change of cultural and social patterns in this region. Students will compare anthropological and ethnographic studies of the Peoples' Republic of China, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan, supplemented by selected research from sociology, history, and political science. The course will focus on specific areas of cultural and social change in each society, including kinship and family, gender, ethnicity, economic and political development, and health and social policy.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3775 Ancient Eurasia & The New Silk Roads

This course will explore the rise of civilization in the broad region of Eurasia, spanning from the eastern edges of Europe to the western edges of China. The focus of the course is the unique trajectory of civilization that is made evident in the region of Central Eurasia from roughly 6000 BC to the historical era (ca. AD 250). In addition to this ancient focus, the course aims to relate many of the most historically durable characteristics of the region to contemporary developments of the past two or three centuries. Fundamentally, this course asks us to reconceptualize the notion of "civilization" from the perspective of societies whose dominant forms of organization defied typical classifications such as "states" or "empires" and, instead, shaped a wholly different social order over the past 5000 years or more. This class provides a well-rounded experience of the geography, social organization, and social interconnections of one of the most essential and pivotal regions in world history and contemporary political discourse.
Same as L48 Anthro 3775

Credit 3 units. A&S: SS, CD, SD A&S IQ: LCD, SSC, SD Art: SSC BU: IS


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U69 Anthro 3777 Compassion Cultivation Training

Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT) is an 8-week educational program designed to help students cultivate compassion, strengthen their resilience, feel more connected to others, and improve their overall sense of well-being. CCT is a distillation from Tibetan Mahyana Buddhist practices for developing compassion, adapted to a secular setting. Initially developed by Stanford University scholars with support from the Dalai Lama, CCT combines traditional contemplative practices with contemporary psychology and scientific research. The program involves instruction in a series of meditation practices starting with mindfulness-based meditation. The curriculum uses modern concepts of psychology and neuroscience to understand and enhance our ability to be compassionate.

Credit 1 unit. UColl: HUM, SSC


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U69 Anthro 3795 Anthropology and Climate Change: Past, Present, and Future

This course provides an overview for interplay between humanity and global climate change that encompasses three-field anthropological subjects. Course material includes the role of climate change in shaping human evolution, human solutions to climatic challenges through time, the impact of human activities on the climate, and modern sociocultural examinations of how climate change is affecting the lives of people around the world.

Credit 3 units. UColl: OLI


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U69 Anthro 381 Humans, Animals, and Monsters

The mythology of dragons, giants and sea-monsters appears in a whole new light when examined through animal/human relations. This course examines the fascinating relationship between humans and other species past and present, from the early fossil hunters of the prehistoric periods to modern-day shepherds. Students will explore myths from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the New World, along with iconographic and archaeological evidence from cultures around the world. We will examine archaeological and paleontological remains in cultural context, compare ancient beliefs about animals, and explore totems of the west coast cultures of North America, animal gods of ancient Egypt, and various ritual sacrifices. We will also discuss spiritual and secular uses of animals.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 384 American Cultures

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 390 Archaeological Excavation

Training in field techniques during actual excavation of a prehistoric site and introduction to laboratory analysis.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 393 Introduction to Archaeological Field Techniques

Introduction to archaeological fieldwork as practiced in the eastern United States. Includes a variety of techniques employed by archaeologists, the underlying purpose of excavations, and the manner in which they are used to explore past societies. Field mapping and testing an archaeological site near Cahokia Mounds links this project to ongoing excavations with other institutions and relates it to the "Redefining Cahokia" project. Intensive "hands-on" class.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3932 An Introduction to Archaeological Site Survey

The study and interpretation of the archaeological record begins in most instances with an archaeological survey. The purpose of this course is to provide students with an introductory level, hands-on experience to archaeological survey as practiced in eastern North America. This involves an introduction in the field to the various methods employed in the identification and mapping of archaeological sites. Students will spend Saturdays in the field mapping and recording archaeological sites including the mapping of monumental earthworks such as those at the prehistoric site of Cahokia or nearby mound centers.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 3941 Archaeology for Public and Private School Education

Course is designed to empower educators with a basic understanding of archaeology as a science, a profession, and as a subdiscipline of anthropology. An overview of a selection of key discoveries as well as a primer on Missouri/Illinois archaeology will be covered. Educators will receive information on incorporating archaeology into the core curriculum and across the curriculum. A sensitivity to the past and past/present cultures is stressed. At least two outdoor activities will be included.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 398 Who Owns the Cultural Heritage of the World?

Have you ever wondered why the Parthenon (Elgin) Marbles are in the British Museum and not in Athens? Or why the beautiful bust of Nefertiti resides in Berlin and not in Cairo? Pitting museums, dealers, and private collectors against source nations, archaeologists, and academics, ownership of the world's cultural heritage is one of the most serious and controversial issues facing the art world today. Looted or plundered artifacts from the distant past are increasingly vetted for undocumented provenance as source nations implement reclamation policies intended to repatriate cultural property to its native land. This course explores the legal, ethical, philosophical and overlapping issues surrounding the sensitive yet provocative subject of cultural patrimony while examining the complex history of specific works in question. Case studies include debated artifacts from Greece, Egypt, Italy, Iraq, and Native America. Students analyze the impact of modern nation political motivations and ramifications in light of the 1970 UNESCO Convention and Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990/2010, and are encouraged to use critical inquiry in evaluating the implications for future global access to this common heritage of the world.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 399 Rich Nations, Poor Nations

This course begins with an examination of equality in small-scale societies and proceeds to a study of the causes underlying the current wealth gap between the developed and underdeveloped world. The second half of the course focuses on the wealth gap within poor nations and examines problems of urban and rural development. Prerequisite: course on cultural anthropology or permission of instructor.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 403 Cultural History of the Southwestern United States

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 406 Primate Ecology and Social Structures

The ecology, individual and social behavior, adaptations, and interactions of the major groups of primates. The relationships among ecology, morphophysiology, and behavior. Discussion of methods used in collecting data on primates in the field. Prerequisite: U69-150A or one 100-level biology course.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 4135 Tobacco: History, Culture, Science and Policy

This course examines tobacco's important role in shaping the modern world over the course of the last five centuries, from indigenous uses of tobacco in the New World to the politics of smoking in the 20th century. Through in-depth historical and anthropological case studies, tobacco provides a window into broad trends in government, law, economy, and society, including changing social meanings of gender, race, individualism, risk, responsibility, and health in the United States and worldwide. This course also introduces students to public health approaches to noncommunicable disease prevention and healthy lifestyle promotion. No background in anthropology or public health is required.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 419 Primate Behavior


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U69 Anthro 4211 Paleoethnobotany and Ethnobotany

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 4500 Economic Development: Interdisciplinary Approach

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 455 Archaeological Method and Technique

Problems in radiocarbon and other radioactive determinations, thermoluminescence, ESR, ceramic analysis and seriation, and other technological skills. Selected problems will vary.


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U69 Anthro 4561 Ceramic Analysis

Method, techniques, and models for analyzing prehistoric ceramics. Students will conduct hands-on analyses of collections from Cahokia Mounds and the St. Louis region. Prerequisite: Anthro 314, graduate standing, or permission of instructor.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 459 Human Osteology

Analysis of skeletal material recovered in human paleontological and archaeological excavations. The development of bone and major diseases that affect skeletal structure. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.
Same as L48 Anthro 459

Credit 3 units. A&S: NS A&S IQ: NSM Art: NSM


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U69 Anthro 4661 Historical Archaeology

Focuses on the methods and techniques specific to historical archaeology. Includes coverage of written records through "contextual" studies, discussion of specific artifact class identification, practical fieldwork (depending on access to a suitable site), and other topics relevant to the field. Prerequisite: 3 credits of archaeology or permission of instructor.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 4813 Zooarchaeology: Birds and Fishes

Methods and techniques of analysis of faunal remains recovered in archaeological context. Prerequisite: one course in archaeology and permission of instructor.

Credit 3 units.


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U69 Anthro 482 The Forensics of Animal Use

Animal bones from archaeological sites tell stories. The study of animal bones (zooarchaeology) is an important component of archaeological research that provides information about human-animal relationships and insights about human behavior. The goal of this course is to help students decipher information contained in bones from archaeological sites, using controlled experiments and ethnoarchaeological research. In addition to learning about animal skeletal anatomy, bone structure and function, each student will design a project in close consultation with the instructor that will be based on the student's interest, background, ability, and schedule.

Credit 3 units.


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