Archaeology provides the opportunity to investigate the material remains of past societies and cultures and the methods by which they are recovered, analyzed, interpreted and reconstructed.
Archaeologists investigate the entire human past, from the first evidence of tool use 3 million years ago to historical studies as recent as the 20th century. To provide a comprehensive understanding of archaeology, the program emphasizes two approaches: the humanistic, which is represented by classical archaeology, and the social scientific, which is represented by anthropological archaeology.
Archaeology students will encounter a range of specialties within the field, from topical studies in areas such as prehistoric pastoralism, hunter-and-gatherer societies, Mayan archaeology, and Greek and Roman archaeology to methodological approaches involving historical archaeology, ethnoarchaeology, zooarchaeology, paleoethnobotany, geoarchaeology, geographic information systems (GIS) and trace element analysis. A strength of this institution in anthropological archaeology is the focus on biologically based studies (paleoethnobotany, zooarchaeology and GIS) to investigate such questions as the origins of food production or complex societies. The strength of the classical archaeological program capitalizes on the use of ancient documents to investigate the more recent Eurasian human past.
While acquiring basic training in archaeology, students may choose to concentrate on a specific region, such as the Eastern Woodlands of the United States, the Andes, Mesoamerica, Africa, Central Asia, China or the Mediterranean world. Ancient and modern languages as well as history and art are essential for some areas of study. Students, in conjunction with their advisers, can identify a specialized set of courses that meet their goals.
Washington University archaeology faculty members are involved in research projects in many regions, such as Central Asia, Northern Africa, China, Greece, the Andes, the Mayan area, New Mexico and the Mississippi River valley. With a degree in archaeology, a graduate can work in academia, private consulting firms, government conservation and compliance agencies, and museums. Academic and museum positions generally require graduate-level training.
|Contact:||Prof. Sarah Baitzel|
The Major in Archaeology
During the 2020-21 academic year, the Interdisciplinary Program in Archaeology will suspend declarations of the major and minor due to a restructuring of the curriculum. For questions about majoring in anthropology with an emphasis in archaeology, please contact Professor Sarah Baitzel.
Total units required: 27
|ARC 190B||Introduction to Archaeology||3|
|ARC 200C||World Archaeology: Global Perspectives on the Past||3|
The major requires 21 advanced (300-/3000- or 400-/4000-level) units in addition to the two introductory courses. These 21 advanced units should be distributed among the offerings in anthropological archaeology and classical archaeology. Eligible courses for the major and minor can be found in the course listings under the L52 ARC Archeology listings. All majors must also complete a supervised archaeological field school of six weeks (or the equivalent) that has been approved by the departmental director.
Internships/Research: The hands-on experience of archaeological fieldwork is particularly attractive to many students. Undergraduate majors in archaeology will complete at least one supervised field project, which is selected to best meet the student's long-term goals. Most field research projects are small, which allows students to work closely with faculty and staff. Recently, students have worked at excavations in such diverse areas as Ireland, France, Kazakhstan, Greece, Israel, China, Japan, Guatemala, Bolivia, the U.S. Southwest, and Cahokia, Illinois. Students focusing on North American archaeology often take an internship at one of the local private firms to gain experience in contract archaeology. Undergraduate participation in research is encouraged, particularly for students working on Senior Honors theses.
Senior Honors: Archaeology majors are encouraged to work for Senior Honors, for which students may apply during the junior or senior year. Acceptance into the program is based on previous academic performance, a proposal accepted by an archaeology faculty member who agrees to supervise the honors research, and approval of the archaeology program director. The honors thesis will be evaluated by a three-member faculty committee.
Study Abroad: In addition to field schools in the summer, many students — particularly those focusing in classical archaeology — also opt to take a semester abroad.
The Minor in Archaeology
During the 2020-21 academic year, the Interdisciplinary Program in Archaeology will suspend declarations of the major and minor due to a restructuring of the curriculum. For questions about majoring in anthropology with an emphasis in archaeology, please contact Professor Sarah Baitzel.
Units required: 15
Required courses: The minor in the Interdisciplinary Program in Archaeology requires the completion of 15 course credits. The minor should include one of the two introductory courses (ARC 190B Introduction to Archaeology or ARC 200C World Archaeology: Global Perspectives on the Past) and at least 12 advanced units from 300- and 400-level courses. Eligible courses for the major and minor can be found in the course listings under the L52 ARC Archeology listings.
The archaeology minor is usually fulfilled by a concentration in either humanistic or social science course work. Thus, the minor will satisfy the Humanities or the Social and Behavioral Sciences distribution area, depending on which courses the minor includes.
Visit online course listings to view semester offerings for L52 ARC.
L52 ARC 130 First-Year Seminar: The Ritual Landscape of Cahokia: Perspectives on the Politics of Religion & Chiefly Power
The purpose of this class is to engage and challenge freshman students in an open discussion about the prehistoric Mississippian community of Cahokia. The focus of this course is two-fold. The first is to study the way in which the archaeological evidence has been interpreted. The second is to examine other perspectives on Cahokia, especially from the Native American descendants who consecrated this landscape nearly a millennium ago. An underlying tenet of this seminar in understanding Cahokia can also be achieved through the traditions and literature of Native Americans. In the end we want to understand the basis for Cahokia's organization as a prehistoric Native American community, and the role that ritual and religion played in the rather dramatic and dynamic history of this community and the surrounding region.
Same as L48 Anthro 130
L52 ARC 190B Introduction to Archaeology
Archaeology plays a critical and unique role in understanding the human past. Through study of the methods and theories of archaeology, and a survey of important firsts in the human past, this course introduces students to the way archaeologists use material culture to reconstruct and understand human behavior. Chronologically ordered case studies from around the globe are used to look at social, ecological and cultural issues facing humans from the earliest times to the present. Students gain practice reconstructing the past through hands-on participation in two one-hour labs focusing on lithics and animal bones. By the end of the course, students are expected to be able to think critically about how the past is presented, and why, and the importance of the past as it relates to the present and future.
Same as L48 Anthro 190B
L52 ARC 200C World Archaeology: Global Perspectives on the Past
If we carefully peer beneath the earth's surface, we will discover a hidden world that is being rediscovered by archaeologists. A considerable amount of excitement is generated by the discovery of lost civilizations and societies. Archaeologists from every corner of the earth come to Washington University to share their experiences as they use the most sophisticated technology to rediscover those forgotten and sometimes embarrassing aspects of our human past.
L52 ARC 300 Internship in Archaeology
Internship with an archaeological project or organization where the primary objective is to obtain professional experience outside of the classroom. Student must have a faculty sponsor and a site or project supervisor. Prerequisites: open only to Archaeology majors with junior standing and permission of department.
Credit variable, maximum 3 units.
L52 ARC 310C Ancient Civilizations of the New World
An examination of the Inca empire in Peru, and the Maya and Aztec empires in Mexico, through the inquiry into the roots, development, form, and evolutionary history of pre-Colombian civilization in each region from its earliest times to the rise of the classic kingdoms. Examples of respective artistic accomplishments are presented and discussed.
Same as L48 Anthro 310C
L52 ARC 3122 From Country to Heavy Metal: Ancient Civilizations of the Old World
This course will explore the archaeology of Europe, the Near East and Central Asia from approximately 10,000 years ago to classical times (ending before Ancient Greece). This prehistoric epoch saw major developments among various civilizations of the Old World, such as the introduction of agriculture, animal domestication, the growth of cities, and technological developments such as pottery, metallurgy and horse-riding. A major focus will be the trajectory of cultural innovations of regional populations through time, and the complexity of their social, political and ritual practices. We will also investigate the variation in human adaptive strategies to various environmental and social contexts, from hunter/gatherers to early Neolithic farmers, to the interactions between nomadic populations and larger scale, urban societies in the Bronze and Iron Ages.
Same as L48 Anthro 3122
L52 ARC 314B Prehistory of North America
The predecessors of the Eskimo, Northwest Coast Indians, Pueblo mound builders, and other North American Indians. Concentrates on deductions from archaeological data for cultural development.
Same as L48 Anthro 314B
L52 ARC 3163 Archaeology of China: Food and People
China is a country with a large population, diverse landscapes, and unique food. This course will explore the origins of Chinese food in the context of the formation of Chinese societies. During the last two decades, the archaeology of China has become a fast-moving subject, with advances in methods and theories as well as changes in key perceptions. In this context, the beginning and spread of food production in China has become one of the key questions in current archaeology. We will focus on the process of the domestication of plants and animals in various regions of China during the Holocene period. We will explore how those processes relate to other sectors of the Old World, such as those of South and Southwest Asia. This course will pursue answers to the following questions: Why are the Chinese ways of living and eating different from those of the West? How were production and consumption in China shaped by food globalization in prehistory?
Same as L48 Anthro 3163
L52 ARC 3182 Ancient Africa: Social Mosaics and Environmental Challenges
This class introduces students to the basics of the archaeological record of humans in Africa from 3.6 M.Y. to 1000 years ago. The first third of the course focuses on early humans, the origins of meat eating, expansion of diet and cuisine, technical and cultural responses to changing environments. The second section of the course emphasizes African rock art, socioeconomic variability among hunter-gatherers, the origins of African pastoralism, mobile responses to climate change and African contributions to world food supply including domestication of sorghum, also coffee. The last third of the course is devoted to the complex urban societies of ancient Africa, Egypt, Axum, Great Zimbabwe, and Jenne Jeno. Course format is lecture and discussion. There are two midterms and students are expected to participate in interactive stone tool use, rock art creation, and discussion of ethnographic and archaeological data on pastoral decision-making in times of drought and war and of issues surrounding the purchase of African antiquities and conservation of cultural heritage.
Same as L48 Anthro 3182
L52 ARC 330 Experimental Archaeology
Experiments are an extremely important part of the scientific process. Although archaeology is often treated as an historical science, the nature of the material record does provide an opportunity to use experimentation as an important way of interpreting what we excavate. The class will be working with the most tangible materials recovered from archaeological contexts, that is stone and pottery. After reviewing the history of experimentation in archaeological investigations we will turn to the material record. This will be followed in our initial weeks of setting up the experiments and how they will be used to compare with available data sets derived from archaeological contexts. As part of the class we will take several field trips to areas where materials exist in a natural setting. Each class member will select a specific material for the focus of their experiments. In the end students will produce several experiments using different materials, document their experiments in written reports, and finally present their results to the class for discussion and evaluation.
Same as L48 Anthro 330
L52 ARC 3304 Bones to Behavior: Undergraduate Research in the Lab and at the Zoo
We undertake zooarchaeological study of equid skeletons in the zooarchaeology laboratory at Washington University, and in collaboration with the Saint Louis Zoo, participate in a behavioral study of the courtship and breeding behavior of the ancestor of the domestic donkey — the African wild ass. The research questions that we focus on are how the biology and behavior of the African wild ass influenced the domestication of the donkey by prehistoric African herders or ancient Egyptians and how the behavior of the African wild ass continues to affect prospects for conservation of this highly endangered animal. During the first half of the semester, we meet once a week for 2.5 hours in the zooarchaeology laboratory. In the second half of the semester, we no longer meet in the lab, and each student spends two mornings of their choice per week at the Saint Louis Zoo conducting observations of the wild ass. Students may choose two days that fit their schedule. Saturdays and Sundays are included as choices of days. Permission of instructor is required.
Same as L48 Anthro 3304
L52 ARC 3305 Bones to Behavior II
In this class, students undertake zooarchaeological research on skeletal material in the zooarchaeology laboratory at Washington University and/or preparation of animal skeletons for comparative study and, in collaboration with the Saint Louis Zoo, participate in behavioral studies of the ancestor of the donkey — the African wild ass. Collections housed in the zooarchaeological laboratory for study include ancient food-remains from African sites. These collections bear on questions regarding cultural and climate change in the Horn of Africa 2,000 to 12,000 years ago and include animals ranging from African antelopes to domestic camels. During the first half of the semester, students meet once a week for 2.5 hours in the zooarchaeological laboratory. In the second half of the semester, we meet twice a week in the laboratory or at the zoo. Location depends on projects selected for study. Permission of instructor is required. May be repeated for credit.
Same as L48 Anthro 3305
L52 ARC 331 Greek Art and Archaeology
A survey of the artistic achievements and material culture of the Greeks in the first millenium BCE (Iron Age through the Hellenistic period). Development of architecture, sculpture and painting, as well as minor arts and utilitarian objects, with emphasis on the insights they offer into Greek society and interactions with the wider Mediterranean world.
Same as L01 Art-Arch 331
L52 ARC 3351 The Ancient Maya: Archaeology and History
This course focuses on the ancient Maya civilization because there are many exciting new breakthroughs in the study of the Maya. The Olmec civilization and the civilization of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico are considered as they related to the rise and development of the Maya civilization. The ancient Maya were the only Pre-Columbian civilization to leave us a written record that we can use to understand their politics, religion and history. This course is about Maya ancient history and Maya glyphic texts, combined with the images of Maya life from their many forms of art. The combination of glyphic texts, art and archaeology now can provide a uniquely detailed reconstruction of ancient history in a New World civilization.
Same as L48 Anthro 3351
L52 ARC 3369 Underwater Archaeology
Survey of the history, techniques and results of underwater excavation worldwide, with emphasis on the ancient Mediterranean. Prerequisite: ARC 190 or ARC 200, or permission of instructor.
Credit 3 units. BU: HUM
L52 ARC 345E The Art and Archaeology of Ancient China
Same as Art-Arch 345E(Q)
Credit 3 units. BU: IS
L52 ARC 3461 Native Americans at Westward Expansion
Issues precipitated by Euro-American contact, colonization and expansion between 1492 and 1810 across Eastern North America, the Plains and the Rocky Mountains. Impacts of exploration and settlement and responses by native peoples: epidemics; population loss; breakdown of Southeastern chiefdoms; resistance; relocation; and shifts in economic strategies. Perspectives and policies of Native Americans as well as Europeans and non-Indian Americans, including Lewis and Clark.
Same as L48 Anthro 3461
L52 ARC 347B Ancient Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley
Study of the peoples in North America who built mounds and other earthen structures beginning more than 4000 years ago; why they erected earthworks; what the structures were used for; how they varied through time and across space; and what significance they had to members of society.
Same as L48 Anthro 347B
L52 ARC 3617 Past and Present Cultural Environments
Human societies are situated within and interact with their ecological and environmental systems. Even social relationships within and between groups imply spatial relationships and geographic orientation, advantages, influence, and limitations. Beyond subsistence, environment and the "natural world" play an integral role in how humans pattern the landscape, structure society, develop their world view, and, in turn, alter and adapt the world in which they live. This course introduces students to anthropological conceptions of human-environmental relationships, past and present. Topics include environmental and landscape archaeology; historical, political, and human behavioral ecology; world view and conceptualizations of nature; human adaptation, resilience theory, and niche construction; anthropological case studies; the intersections of humans, animals, and the environment; and environmental politics.
Same as L48 Anthro 3617
L52 ARC 3693 Anthropology of Death, Mourning and Burial
This course offers anthropological analysis of death, mourning and burial. It draws on data and theoretical explanations from different sub-disciplines of anthropology (archaeology, cultural anthropology, and physical anthropology). In addition to theoretical conceptualization of mortuary practices, specific case studies are used to address a wide range of topics. The course covers cross-cultural comparison of burial among hunter-gatherers, pastoralists and complex societies. Mortuary practices also are conceptualized based on religion and secularity, social organization and biological approaches (e.g., paleodiet, paleodemography, disease). Ethical and legal issues of using human remains worldwide also are addressed. This course helps train and stimulate academic enquiry into ancient and modern societal treatment of death around the globe. The time covered in this course ranges from the Lower Palaeolithic to the contemporary world.
Same as L48 Anthro 3693
L52 ARC 373 Introduction to GIS for Anthropologists
Use of GIS is rapidly becoming standard practice in anthropological research. This course will introduce students to the basic theories and techniques of GIS. Topics will include the application of GIS in archaeologial survey and ethnographic research, as well as marketing, transportation, demographics, and urban and regional planning. This course will enable students to become familiar not only with GIS software such as ArcGIS, but also the methodologies and tools used to collect and analyze spatial data. Students will gain expertise engaging with data situated across a number spatial scales, from households, communities and cities to landscapes, nation-states, and global phenomena.
Same as L48 Anthro 373
L52 ARC 374 Social Landscapes in Global View
From the beginning of the human campaign, societies have socialized the spaces and places where they live. This socialization comes in many forms, including the generation of sacred natural places (e.g., Mt. Fuji) to the construction of planned urban settings where culture is writ large in overt and subtle contexts. Over the past two decades or so, anthropologists, archaeologists and geographers have developed a wide body of research concerning these socially constructed and perceived settings — commonly known as "landscapes." This course takes a tour through time and across the globe to trace the formation of diverse social landscapes, starting in prehistoric times and ending in modern times. We cover various urban landscapes, rural landscapes, nomadic landscapes (and others) and the intersection of the natural environment, the built environments and the symbolism that weaves them together. Chronologically, we range from 3000 BCE to 2009 CE and we cover all the continents. This course also traces the intellectual history of the study of landscape as a social phenomenon, and investigates the current methods used to recover and describe social landscapes around the world and through time. Join in situating your own social map alongside the most famous and the most obscure landscapes of the world and trace the global currents of your social landscape!
Same as L48 Anthro 374
L52 ARC 376 Warriors, Merchants, Monks and Courtesans: Ancient Narratives of Globalization in Google Earth
This introductory seminar-style course examines the history of globalization through the narrative accounts of those who lived along some of the great trade routes of the Old World. Through a combination of in-class discussion and hands-on tutorials and projects in Google Earth, we examine how day-to-day local interactions and the experiences of individuals contributed to broader cultural exchanges and the shaping of ancient cosmopolitan centers. We use a bottom-up approach to understand the process of globalization, and why it is not only a phenomenon of the modern world. This course covers a large geographic and temporal span, but it is not about memorizing lists of dates and places or putting dots on a map — it is about learning how to interpret multiple strands of knowledge and put them together into a cohesive narrative of history. The course covers four broad anthropological themes related to Old World history and globalization in conjunction with weekly lessons in Google Earth; there are no prerequisites for either. The knowledge and skills gained in the course lead to a final independent research project consisting of a short paper and an interactive digital map that can be shared online through the Google Earth community.
Same as L48 Anthro 376
L52 ARC 3775 Ancient Eurasia and the New Silk Roads
This course explores the rise of civilization in the broad region of Eurasia, spanning from the eastern edges of Europe to the western edges of China. The focus of the course is the unique trajectory of civilization that is made evident in the region of Central Eurasia from roughly 6000 BC to the historical era (ca. AD 250). In addition to this ancient focus, the course aims to relate many of the most historically durable characteristics of the region to contemporary developments of the past two or three centuries. Fundamentally, this course asks us to reconceptualize the notion of "civilization" from the perspective of societies whose dominant forms of organization defied typical classifications such as "states" or "empires" and, instead, shaped a wholly different social order over the past 5000 years or more. This class provides a well-rounded experience of the geography, social organization, and social interconnections of one of the most essential and pivotal regions in world history and contemporary political discourse.
Same as L48 Anthro 3775
L52 ARC 399 Undergraduate Teaching Assistant
Open to advanced undergraduates only. Usual duties of teaching assistant in laboratory or other selected courses. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.
Credit 3 units.
L52 ARC 4020 Jerusalem, The Holy City
An examination of the role that Jerusalem has played in three religious traditions — Judaism, Christianity and Islam — through a study of archaeology, history, literature, politics and theology from antiquity to contemporary times. A senior seminar in Jewish, Islamic, and Middle Eastern Studies. During winter break, the class goes to Jerusalem as part of the course. Student portion of travel costs TBA. Students unable to make the trip receive a reduction to 4 units of course credit. Preference given to seniors majoring in Jewish, Islamic, and Middle Eastern Studies. Others may enroll with instructor's permission.
Same as L75 JIMES 4020
Credit 5 units. EN: H
L52 ARC 403 Culture and History of the Southwestern United States
This course integrates archaeological, historical, and early ethnographic dimensions of American Indian societies in the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico, a region famous for its challenging environment, cultural diversity, and the contributions made by its Native inhabitants. Emphasis is placed on the development of sophisticated desert agriculture and on the rise of regionally integrated cultures including Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde. The impact of Spanish, Mexican, and American colonization are explored. Ethnographies of Tohono O'odham (Papago), Hopi, Zuni, Rio Grande Pueblo, and Navajo societies are discussed.
Same as L48 Anthro 403
L52 ARC 420 The Plundered Past: Archaeology's Challenges in the Modern World
The public imagination thrills at the fantastic adventures of Indiana Jones and Laura Croft, Tomb Raider; but the reality of modern archaeology is more complex, ethically challenging and interesting than a simple treasure hunt. In the U.S. and Canada, our science museums and museums of anthropology still display artifacts that are regarded as sacred and culturally definitive by Indian nations, although such holdings are now subject to negotiation and repatriation. Art museums in Europe and the U.S. are still stocked with looted ancient masterpieces that are revered as vital heritage by the nations from which they were stolen. We display looted art alongside a much smaller number of legitimately excavated artifacts of masterpiece quality, so it is no surprise that our popular images of archaeologists as avid and undiscerning collectors raise little concern. But modern archaeologists are not extractors of art or even of scientific information, from places as passive and inert as the museums' objects ultimately occupy. Archaeologists work with living people inhabiting societies and states that care deeply about their pasts and the relics of it. They are active agents engaged with many other people in the production of knowledge about the past. In our rapidly shrinking world, educated sensitivity to the many ancient cultural legacies that shape the values of modern global society is more than a moral imperative; it is a basic form of collaboration in the common project of survival. Archaeologists are ethically charged to advance that project through education about the complex contemporary arena of artifacts, sites, and information they occupy.
Same as L48 Anthro 4240
L52 ARC 421 Minoan and Mycenaean Archaeology
Same as Art-Arch 421
Credit 3 units.
L52 ARC 4212 Advanced Methods in Paleoethnobotany
Advanced analytical techniques for the study of archaeological plant remains. Tools and methods for micromorphological recognition, including electron microscopy. Photomicroscopy at low magnification, management, tabulation and reporting of data. Prerequisite: Anthro 4211 or permission of instructor.
Same as L48 Anthro 4212
L52 ARC 4214 The Archaeology of Food and Drink
Studies of past human diets have moved beyond analyses of animal bones and seeds to encompass new theoretical goals and innovative analytical techniques. In this seminar-style course, students will explore methods of understanding food-related social interactions such as evidence including residues, ancient DNA, isotopes and trace elements, along with more traditional artifacts and archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological remains. By examining case studies from around the world, we evaluate the current state of research attempting to integrate the biological and cultural aspects of eating and drinking.
Same as L48 Anthro 4214
L52 ARC 426 Ancient Athens
Athens was one of the great cities of antiquity. From lavishly decorated marble temples on the Acropolis, to public office buildings and inscriptions in the Agora (civic center), to the houses of the living and the monuments for the dead, the city has left a rich record of her material culture. These buildings and objects, together with an exceptionally large number of literary and historical texts, make it possible to paint a vivid picture of the ancient city. The course concentrates on the physical setting and monuments of Athens, as revealed by both archaeology and texts, and how they functioned within the context of Athenian civic and religious life. Prerequisite: Classics 345C, Classics 350 or permissions of instructor.
Same as L08 Classics 426
L52 ARC 4285 Environmental Archaeology
This course intends to introduce students to lines of evidence used in the interpretation of past landscapes, to discuss how we can conceptualize changing human ecological relations, and to consider how we can identify the influence that humans have on their environment. Special emphasis is placed on human-animal-plant relations using case studies from around the world. Combining both lecture and seminar sessions, this course aims to ensure that students are aware of several of the basic methods of bioarchaeological and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction as well as the application of these methods to the interpretation of past landscapes and human impacts on them.
Same as L48 Anthro 4285
L52 ARC 4375 Ancient Greek Sculpture in Context
Sculpture counts among one of the greatest artistic achievements of ancient Greece, and one that has had the greatest impact on the art of later periods. This course focuses on original works of art of the Archaic and Classical periods (600–300 BCE), placing emphasis on how study of their contexts — the places in which they were produced, displayed and found — contributes to our understanding of their place in the ancient world. Background material, which is covered at the beginning of the semester, includes the origins of monumental Greek sculpture at the beginning of the Archaic period (late 7th to early 6th century BCE), and the stylistic development of the Archaic and Classical periods. We then proceed to discussion of various types of sculpture (architectural, cult statue, votive, commemorative, funerary) and how these works functioned within the context of the Panhellenic sanctuary, the city sanctuary, the secular center of the city, and the necropolis. In a different view of context, we also consider sculpture recovered from ancient shipwrecks, looted art on its way to the ancient Roman art market. Prerequisite: Art-Arch 331 or permission of the instructor.
Same as L01 Art-Arch 4375
L52 ARC 4393 The Archaeology of Trade and Exchange
Studies of trade and exchange are fundamental to our past, as cultures in contact result in new imaginings of self, communities, and place in the world. This course engages in archaeological and anthropological discussions about the interconnectedness that results from trade. This seminar concentrates on the discourse of material trade and the mechanisms for exchange, redistribution, dependency and resistance. It also examines the immaterial exchange of ideas, perceptions and values that alter concepts of identity, space and time. Globalization, political economies, and power are also addressed, along with ideas about territory, value, and social and political consequences of trade.
Same as L48 Anthro 4393
L52 ARC 4561 Ceramic Analysis
Methods, techniques, and models for analyzing archaeological ceramics. Students will learn how ceramic artifacts are used by archaeologists to reconstruct social practices in the past, including economics, politics, religion/ritual, migration, social organization, etc. Students will be trained in both qualitative and quantitative methods of analyzing ceramics and ceramic assemblages. While these methods are applicable to the archaeology of societies across the world, students will specifically conduct hands-on analyses of archaeological collections from the St. Louis/Midwestern U.S. region. Prerequisite: at least one archaeology course, graduate standing, or permission of instructor.
L52 ARC 4562 Artifact Analysis: Mississippian Cultures
The purpose of this course is to provide students with an introductory, hands-on experience of the methods employed in the analysis of archaeological materials common to the Mississippian culture. Students conduct class projects based on collections from Cahokia Mounds and the St. Louis region. Prerequisite: Anthro 314 or equivalent, or graduate standing, or permission of instructor.
Same as L48 Anthro 4562
L52 ARC 4565 Biomolecular Archaeology: Are You What You Eat?
A revolution is underway in archaeology. Working at the cutting edge of isotopic and genetic technologies, researchers have been probing the building blocks of ancient proteins, life-DNA, fats and microfossils - to rewrite our understanding of the past. Their discoveries and analyses have helped revise the human genealogical tree and answer such questions as: Are you what you eat? How different are we from the Neanderthals? Who first domesticated plants and animals? What was life like for our ancestors? In this class, we will address those fundamental issues to understanding human nature. Here is science at its most engaging.
Same as L48 Anthro 4565
L52 ARC 4655 New Advances in Archaeology
Archaeological research is moving at an increasingly rapid pace, with advances in archaeological methods and theory propelling new interpretations and understandings of archaeological findings. This course we focus on contemporary developments in archaeology, with an emphasis on current trends in theory, method and discovery. The objectives of the course are to place emerging trends in archaeological research in a historical context, to understand new methods, and to explore how various theoretical approaches influence the conduct of archaeological research around the globe.
Same as L48 Anthro 4655
L52 ARC 4661 Historical Archaeology
This course focuses upon the methods and techniques employed in historical archaeology. We will include method of integration of written records through contextual studies, discussion of specific artifact type identification techniques, and seminar type treatments of other aspects of the field. The class will include some hands-on lab work, working primarily with materials from the first American fort west of the Mississippi (Fort Belle Fontaine) and two Civil War period mansions. Prerequisite: 3 credits of archaeology or permission of instructor.
Same as L48 Anthro 4661
L52 ARC 4682 Ethnoarchaeology
Theories, methods and techniques applied by archaeologists to contemporary societies and materials to aid their understanding of extinct societies. Analysis of ethnographic research in both the Old and New Worlds. Participation with Profs. Watson, Browman, and Fritz are included in relevant topics. Prerequisites: Anthro 160B or 190BP, and permission of instructor.
Same as L48 Anthro 4682
L52 ARC 4761 Pleistocene Peopling of Eurasia
The paleolithic archaeology, human paleobiology, and paleoecology of the geographical expansions and adaptations of Eurasian humans through the Pleistocene. Prerequisite: Anthro 150A or 190B.
Same as L48 Anthro 4761
L52 ARC 4771 Out of the Wild: Domestication and Socioeconomic Diversity in Africa
The reason for the beginnings and spread of food production during the early Holocene in so many parts of the world is one of the most interesting questions in archaeology. It now seems likely that there are many different pathways to domestication. In Africa, there is a record of up to several million years of human existence as hunter-gatherers before some human populations adopted food production. Domestication of plants and animals about 10,000 years ago resulted in fundamental changes in human societies. It provided the basis for the increase in settlement densities, specialization and social stratification, and general decrease in mobility and dietary diversity, characteristic of non-hunter-gatherer societies in the modern world. In this seminar, the class explores the phenomenon of domestication, and the spread of food production, surveying the evidence for manipulation and domestication of plant and animal species by prehistoric peoples in Africa. We focus on how and why domestication occurred, and factors that influenced its spread, and interactions between late hunter-gatherers and early pastoralists, and intersections with complex societies of the Nile. We also look at the contributions of Africa to understanding pathways to food production world wide.
Same as L48 Anthro 4771
L52 ARC 4792 The Many Paths Leading Toward the Creation of the Ancient City
The purpose of this class is to examine the emergence of the Ancient City across the globe. We want to begin with the concepts of urbanism, city and metropolis. These are words whose derivation are to be found in the classical languages of the Mediterranean. Is there any means to reach an understanding of how other civilizations and societies characterized these special places on the landscape? In the past, many scholars have argued that market economies and state-level societies are essential to their existence. Such arguments reflect issues of sustainability in terms of the economy and the effective control of large populations through state-level institutions. While we want to understand the role of the economy and the level(s) of political integration involved in the process of urbanism, are there other cultural institutions such as religion that play a much larger and more significant role? Do these places reflect the "citizens" perception of the cosmos?
Same as L48 Anthro 4792
L52 ARC 480 Roman Coins and Their Stories
This course will provide insights into everyday life in Rome and its territories through the evidence of the coins minted from the Roman Republic until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476 and beyond. We will discuss general numismatics, starting with the history of coins and coinage, and we will understand how these small objects became an intrinsic part of the Roman way of life and what evidence they provide for daily life in Rome, from ideology to religion and from politics and culture.
Same as L08 Classics 480
L52 ARC 4803 Advanced GIS Modeling and Landscape Analysis
The aim of this course is to learn to analyze archaeological data in terms of its spatial layout, geography, ecology, and temporal dynamics, using Geographic Information Systems and associated computer modeling techniques. A focus is placed on the relationship between natural environments, cultural geography, and the mapping of archaeological landscapes, and on the archaeologist's ability to accurately recover, reconstruct and analyze this relationship in a virtual environment.
Same as L48 Anthro 4803
L52 ARC 481 Zooarchaeology
Archaeologists use ancient objects or material culture to study all of the human past, in its length and diversity. To do this, we have to reconstruct human actions from the things people made and used and the impacts that they had on the environment. Since the 1960's archaeologists have turned in an increasingly systematic way to aspects of the way people relate to material culture in the present, as sources for analogies for interpreting aspects of the past. Ethnographic field studies designed with archaeological problems in mind have become more common, and have contributed substantially to archaeological interpretation. Questions such as how archaeological sites form, and interpretation of changing human diets, human adaptations to challenging environments, how people domesticated plants and animals, the nature of human foodways, gender roles, the spread of food production or ritual and burial practices have all been informed by ethnoarchaeological studies We will look at ethnoarcheological approaches to the interpretation of many different categories of archeological data including: lithics, ceramics, house structures, and rock art and discuss a wide variety of archaeological topics to which ethnoarchaeological approaches have been applied. The areas that we focus on will depend on the topics in which the class is most interested.
Same as L48 Anthro 481
L52 ARC 482 Experimental Zooarchaeology
Same as Anthro 482
Credit 3 units.
L52 ARC 489 Pathways to Domestication
Survey of the evidence of the domestication of plants and animals, focusing on processes leading to domestication, and on the recognition of pristine features of domestication in the archaeological record. Prerequisite: one 300- or 400-level course in archaeology.
Same as L48 Anthro 489
L52 ARC 4892 Hunter-Gatherer Socioeconomic Variation
This class will explore the nature and extent of variation in hunter-gatherer socioeconomic systems as documented in the literature on recent hunter-gatherers, and in the archaeological record of the last 20,000 years. We will discuss Woodburn's concept of delayed return hunter-gatherers, Testart's writing on hunter-gatherer socioeconomic organization, and archaeological concepts of simple and complex hunter-gatherers. We will examine case studies of both delayed and immediate return hunter-gatherers from the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australia, and emphasize understanding underlying reasons for differences between groups, and implications of differences for patterns of cultural change, including the adoption of food production.
Same as L48 Anthro 4892
L52 ARC 489W Seminar: Pathways to Domestication
The origins of agriculture led to one of the most important transitions in human history, continuing to fascinate anthropologists and all who depend on farmers for food. We examine evidence for the development and spread of settled and mobile farming systems in diverse regions of the world. We discuss old and new theoretical approaches and apply increasingly sophisticated methods for recovering and interpreting the evidence. Recent research puts us in a better position than ever before to understand the preconditions, processes, and possibly the causes of domestication and the spread of food production. This course is the WI version of Anthro 489 Seminar: Pathways to Domestication.
Same as L48 Anthro 489W
L52 ARC 491 Archaeological Research
Undergraduate research experience sponsored by one of the archaeology staff. May be taken more than once for credit. Prerequisite: permission of the faculty member under whom the research will be done.
L52 ARC 492 Independent Studies
Supervised independent research. For advanced undergraduates only. Prerequisite: permission of the faculty member under whom the work will be done.
Credit variable, maximum 3 units.
L52 ARC 493 Honors Thesis
Limited to students accepted into the honors program. Prerequisite: permission of department.
Credit 3 units. EN: S
L52 ARC 497 Senior Project
Designed for majors in Archaeology who have not satisfied their college capstone experience in another manner, or who are not satisfying this requirement through ARC 493 Honors Thesis. This course involves a structured research assignment, internship, fieldwork or independent project under the supervision of one of the department's faculty. Limited to students in the junior level and above. Permission of instructor who will supervise the work is required.
Credit variable, maximum 3 units. EN: S
L52 ARC 4975 Collecting Cultures: Taste, Passion and the Making of Art Histories
This seminar examines the theory and the cultural history of the collecting of art objects and artifacts from a range of cultures and periods, considering how and why both individuals and institutions create collections. What social and psychological factors drive this passion? What are the various cultural, political and aesthetic priorities that have driven this practice historically? How is cultural patrimony defined, and how do law, the art market and cross-cultural ethics impact the placement, study and display of a culture's material heritage? We build the seminar around the history of collecting in America, with a focus on Midwestern examples, and particularly, important case studies in St. Louis. We, for example, consider the significant local collections built by Joseph and Emily Rauh Pulitzer (modern art), and Morton May (modern and oceanic art), as well as the histories of both modern and non-Western collections now owned by the St. Louis area museums. This course is complemented by various local field trips (SLAM, Pulitzer, Kemper and Cahokia). Prerequisites: Art-Arch 112, Art-Arch 113, Art-Arch 211 or Art-Arch 215; one 300-level course in art history preferred; or permission of instructor.
Same as L01 Art-Arch 4975
L52 ARC 498 Intensive Writing Course: Archaeology
Designed for majors who have not satisfied their college writing requirement in another fashion. This course ordinarily is taken in tandem with another 300- or 400-level course in Archaeology, with the required permission to enroll granted by the instructor in that course. The student prepares a portfolio of papers, which undergo revision and rewriting, as assigned by that course instructor. In some cases, this writing-intensive course may be taken as an independent study course with one of the Archaeology professors. This latter option requires permission of both the department and the instructor. When the course is integrated with another 300- or 400-level course, credit is limited to 1 unit. If taken as an independent study course, credit is no more than 3 units. Permission of instructor required; limited to juniors and seniors.