The minor in Applied Linguistics emphasizes language acquisition and language use in foreign and second-language settings. Applied Linguistics is concerned with increasing the understanding of the role of language in human affairs and thereby with providing the knowledge necessary for those who are responsible for making language-related decisions, whether the need arises in the workplace, the courtroom, the classroom, or the laboratory. Students learn to evaluate theory and research in different areas of the field, including second-language studies and sociolinguistics. Required introductory courses provide the necessary foundation for advanced classes. Courses at all levels include the critical analysis of different theories, conceptual models, and research methodologies. Students of Applied Linguistics may engage in international or domestic studies that involve independent research projects with faculty members from Law, Business, Anthropology, Global Studies, Education and Engineering.
Specifically, the minor in Applied Linguistics at Washington University meets the increasing domestic and international demand for second- and foreign-language specialists. This minor — in combination with a major in International and Area Studies, language (e.g., Spanish, French, Italian, Chinese, Swahili, German, Japanese), Anthropology, Philosophy–Neuroscience–Psychology (PNP), Psychological & Brain Sciences, or Educational Studies — helps students qualify for positions that may involve linguistically and culturally diverse learners in the United States and around the world. The minor is also suitable for students who wish to pursue graduate studies or advanced degrees in Law, Business, Medicine, Engineering, Applied Linguistics, Global Studies, Psychological & Brain Sciences, Education, and more.
The Applied Linguistics minor is an independent minor administered by Global Studies.
The Minor in Applied Linguistics
Units required: 18
This minor is composed of 18 credits that focus on the theoretical, empirical and practical foundations of teaching and learning languages. All participating students must have a declared primary major. Minors must receive a grade of C+ or higher in all Applied Linguistics courses; all courses taken for Applied Linguistics credit must be taken for a letter grade, including language courses.
Required Courses (taught in English unless otherwise indicated):
- The following courses:
|APL 4111||Linguistics and Language Learning||3|
|Ling 170D||Introduction to Linguistics||3|
- One of the following courses focused on language acquisition:
|APL 4023||Second-Language Acquisition and Technology||3|
|APL 4692||Reading Across Languages and Cultures: Theory, Research and Practice||3|
|Ling 466||Second Language Acquisition||3|
|Span 3202||Debating Cultures. How Spanish Works||3|
|Span 370||Introduction to Hispanic Linguistics||3|
|Span 467||Grammar and Vocabulary Acquisition||3|
- One of the following courses focused on language use:
|AFAS 210||The Linguistic Legacy of the African Slave Trade in Interdisciplinary Perspective||3|
|Anthro 3386||Language, Culture and Society||3|
|GS (IAS) 4036||Children of Immigrants: Identity and Acculturation||3|
|Ling 263||Linguistics for Legal Purposes||3|
|Ling 339||Introduction to Sociolinguistics||3|
|Ling 341||Linguistic Diversity in the United States||3|
- At least two of the following:
|AFAS 368||Social Change||3|
|APL 300||Independent Research Study||3|
|APL 400||Independent Research Study||3|
|Comp Lit 394||Worldwide Translation: Language, Culture, Technology||3|
|Educ 304||Educational Psychology||3|
|Educ 314||Sociolinguistics, Literacies, Schools, and Communities||3|
|Educ 4014||Urban Education in Multiracial Societies||3|
|Educ 4055||Central Topics in Psychological Research on Teaching and Learning||3|
|Educ 4302||Cognitive Psychology Applied to Education||3|
|Educ 433||Complex Learning in Education||3|
|Educ 453B||Sociology of Education||3|
|Educ 481W||History of Education in the United States||3|
|Educ 5501||Contemporary Issues in the Psychological Science of Learning: Motivation and Emotion||3|
|E Lit 407||Old English, Introductory||3|
|E Lit 472||History of the English Language||3|
|GS (IAS) 3248||Intercultural Communication||3|
|GS (IAS) 3512||"Model Minority": The Asian American Experience||3|
|Ling 311||Introduction to Semantics||3|
|Psych 315||Introduction to Social Psychology||3|
|Psych 358||Language Acquisition||3|
|Psych 4302||Cognitive Psychology Applied to Education||3|
|Psych 433||Psychology of Language||3|
|Span 417||Spanish Phonetics, Phonology and Dialectology||3|
|URST 400||Urban Education in Multiracial Societies||3|
Under certain circumstances, students may count toward their minor in Applied Linguistics a limited number of relevant classes not listed above. Such circumstances include study abroad. Students are required to complete both Ling 170 and APL 4111 prior to applying for study abroad. Select study abroad programs are approved for the Applied Linguistics minor. A specific plan of study must be worked out in advance with the adviser in the Applied Linguistics program.
Visit online course listings to view semester offerings for L92 Applied Linguistics.
L92 APL 300 Independent Research Study
Prerequisite: permission of the director of the applied linguistics program.
Credit 3 units.
L92 APL 304 Educational Psychology
A course in psychological concepts relevant to education. Organized around four basic issues: (1) how humans think and learn; (2) how children, adolescents, and adults differ in their cognitive and moral development; (3) the sense in which motivation and intention explain why people act as they do; and (4) how such key human characteristics as intelligence, motivation, and academic achievement can be measured. Offered fall and spring semesters.
Same as L12 Educ 304
L92 APL 315 Introduction to Social Psychology
Introduction to the scientific study of individual behavior in a social context. Topics: person perception, stereotyping and prejudice, attitudes, memory, and political psychology, among other issues. Prerequisite: Psych 100B.
Same as L33 Psych 315
L92 APL 3202 Debating Cultures: How Spanish Works
This course offers an introduction to the study of the Spanish language as a science. It focuses on the main linguistic subsystems: the sound system (phonetics and phonology), the formation and use of words (morphology), and the formation and structure of sentences (syntax). When working with each linguistic subsystem, students are provided with opportunities to reflect on and improve their own abilities in Spanish, such as with regard to how mood (indicative versus subjunctive) and aspect (preterit versus imperfect) work in the Spanish verbal system. Similarities and differences between Spanish and other languages, such as English, are highlighted. The course also provides students with an introduction to the history of Spanish in its evolution from Latin as one of many Romance languages (a diachronic view) and an exploration of various regional varieties of Spanish today (a synchronic view). The goals of the course include understanding linguistics and Hispanic linguistics as cognitive sciences; understanding language acquisition and use as neural processes; disentangling linguistic rules and linguistic variation from pedagogical rules and stigmatization; and applying one's knowledge of linguistics in general and Hispanic linguistics in particular to practical issues and challenges. This course will have a strong, mandatory and graded oral communications component, and it is taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: Span 303 or Span 308D. Students who have taken more than two Spanish culture or literature classes are not allowed in this course and must proceed to a Researching Cultures class.
Same as L38 Span 3202
L92 APL 3248 Intercultural Communication
"Intercultural communication" and "cross-cultural communication" are interchangeable terms in referring to the field of studies covered in this course. We take a critical approach to topics or issues that emerge in intercultural settings, from verbal and non-verbal cues, tastes and smells, and signs and symbols, to perceptions of space, individualism and collectivism, and intercultural encounters in business or medical fields. The readings cover case studies of different world regions across various cultural, linguistic, and ethnic groups. This course aims to provide analytical tools to understand and navigate cultural difference and to develop critical skills of intercultural competence in an increasingly interconnected world.
Same as L97 GS (IAS) 3248
L92 APL 3386 Language, Culture and Society
Although this is an introductory course, students who have taken Linguistics 170D, namely, "Introduction to Linguistics", will benefit from knowledge of phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. The primary content of this course explores the relationship between linguistic practice and other social and cultural processes. Anthropological linguistics, including alternative approaches to fieldwork and data collection are introduced, along with various studies of language usage in social and cultural contexts that consider language and thought, language and identity, language and gender, as well as multilingualism and other forms of language contact. The ethnography of speaking and communication are central to this course, as is conversation analyses, which will introduce a combination of qualitative and quantitative linguistic research methods.
Same as L48 Anthro 3386
L92 APL 3512 "Model Minority": The Asian-American Experience
This course explores the Asian-American experience revolving around the concept of the "model minority." It investigates the historical origins of this idea and reconsiders this concept in sociopolitical discourses as well as in everyday Asian-American lives. Through multidisciplinary inquiries, this course provides a lens into the complexity and heterogeneity of Asian Americans. It situates Asian-American experiences in the broader American -- and, at times, transnational, ethnoracial and sociopolitical -- context. The texts and discussions cover a wide range of topics and pressing issues, such as identity, race, and (pan-)ethnicity; culture and religion; gender and sexuality; masculinity and femininity; and notions of invisibility and marginalization.
Same as L97 GS (IAS) 3512
L92 APL 358 Language Acquisition
This course examines the development of language skills in children, asking how children so rapidly learn their first language. Topics include; biological bases of language development; development of phonology, syntax, and morphology; language development in atypical populations; childhood bilingualism; and development of written language skills. Prerequisite: Psych 100B and Ling 170D.
Same as L33 Psych 358
L92 APL 370 Introduction to Hispanic Linguistics
An introduction to the scientific study of the Spanish language, this course focuses on each of the major linguistic subsystems, including the sound system (phonetics and phonology), word formation (morphology), formation of phrases and sentences (syntax), and the use of the language to convey meaning (semantics and pragmatics). At each level of analysis, selected comparisons are made between Spanish and English and between Spanish and other languages. The course also examines different historical, regional, and social varieties of Spanish and situations of Spanish in contact with other languages.
Same as L38 Span 370
L92 APL 400 Independent Research Study
Prerequisite: permission of the director of the applied linguistics program.
Credit 3 units.
L92 APL 4000 Urban Education in Multiracial Societies
This course offers students an analysis of the historical development and contemporary contexts of urban education in English-epeaking, multiracial societies. It examines legal decisions, relevant policy decisions, and salient economic determinants that inform urban systems of education in Western societies including, but not limited to, the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and South Africa. The course draws on quantitative, qualitative, and comparative data as an empirical foundation to provide a basis for a cross-cultural understanding of the formalized and uniform system of public schooling characteristic of education in urban settings. Given the social and material exigencies that shape urban school systems in contemporary societies, special attention is given in this course to the roles of migration, immigration urbanization, criminal justice, industrialism, de-industrialism, and globalization in shaping educational outcomes for diverse students in the aforementioned settings. Prerequisite: Junior standing or permission of instructor.
Same as L18 URST 400
L92 APL 4023 Second-Language Acquisition and Technology
This seminar for undergraduate and graduate students will transform research and theory about second-language acquisition into practice while focusing on technology-driven applications. The course fosters professional development as participants formulate critical skills for evaluating, creating, and integrating technology into the language classroom and other language learning contexts, including business, engineering, and law. Course formats include readings, discussions, and demonstrations with technologies. The course counts for the minor in applied linguistics, the PhD in applied linguistics, and the graduate certificate in language instruction. This course carries the Social and Behavioral Sciences attribute and can be taken for different majors.
Credit 3 units. A&S IQ: SSC
L92 APL 4036 Children of Immigrants: Identity and Acculturation
This seminar takes an interdisciplinary approach to the children of immigrants as an analytical subject. Our investigation looks into the 1.5- and second-generation youth of different cultural and ethnic backgrounds in the United States, with a considerable number of case studies focusing on Asian-American and Latinx populations. Discussion topics include migration and identity, ethnicity and race, bilingualism and biculturalism, family and school, youth culture, and other pressing issues, such as mental health. The seminar offers a theoretical lens into children of immigrants by introducing different research methodologies in the social sciences. Students are required to conduct an individual research project among a selected group of children of immigrants.
Same as L97 GS (IAS) 4036
L92 APL 4055 Central Topics in Psychological Research on Teaching and Learning
This course will focus on how theory and research in psychological science and other related disciplines can inform teaching and learning in a variety of educative contexts. Each week, we will delve into research on a new set of issues that all revolve around a particular theme, such as pedagogical methods, motivation, student characteristics, assessment of learning, evaluation of teaching effectiveness, and educational technology. In addition to analyzing theory and research, we will discuss implications for educational practice and policy with an emphasis on designing interventions and fostering innovation.
Same as L12 Educ 4055
L92 APL 407 Old English, Introductory
Study of the Anglo-Saxon language and introduction to major prose and short poetry of the period. Prerequisites: junior standing and 6 units of literature.
Same as L14 E Lit 407
Credit 3 units. Art: HUM
L92 APL 4111 Linguistics and Language Learning
This course, which is taught in English, is a foundation for students who will work with linguistically and culturally diverse people in the United States and around the world, whether this work is in the courtroom, the hospital, the classroom, the office, or another setting. The course will help to prepare students for the diverse range of 21st-century occupations that have language and linguistics at their center, including machine learning and translation studies. The courses uses a survey format and covers both internal and external factors related to language acquisition and language use, such as language and the brain, language aptitude, age, gender, memory, prior knowledge, and so on. Theoretical and research dimensions of both linguistics and foreign-/second-language learning are also treated. Corresponding implications of the readings focus on action, including making decisions about language policies as well as debates around the world that are informed by linguistic and language knowledge. The course is required for the minor in applied linguistics, the PhD in applied linguistics, and the graduate certificate in language instruction. This course carries the Social and Behavioral Sciences attribute and can be taken for different majors, such as International and Area Studies and Educational Studies. Prerequisite: Ling 170 is recommended but not required.
L92 APL 417 Spanish Phonetics, Phonology and Dialectology
This course, conducted in Spanish, explores the linguistic varieties of the 21 Spanish-speaking countries from both a historical and a synchronic perspective. The course begins with a traditional look at Spanish phonetics and phonology, with all students memorizing and utilizing the International Phonetic Alphabet. Course readings and discussions extend beyond the descriptive and include a search for the sources of language variation within the Spanish speaking world. Particular attention is devoted to language contact and bilingualism. Students will read in areas such as history, sociolinguistics, dialectology, and sociology, as well as traditional linguistic studies, in designing their projects concerning phonetics, phonology and dialect diversification.
Same as L38 Span 417
L92 APL 4302 Cognitive Psychology Applied to Education
This course is intended to cover topics in the cognitive psychology of human memory, conceptual learning, and comprehension with special focus on areas, theory, and research that have potential application to education. Thus, the course will provide selective coverage of theoretical and empirical work in cognitive psychology that provides potential to inform and improve educational practice. The applicability of these themes will be explicitly developed and evaluated through the primary research literature using educationally oriented experimental paradigms. The course is expected to be of interest and benefit to education majors and to psychology majors interested in cognitive psychology and its applications. PREREQ: Junior/Senior status, 9 units in Psychology and Psych 100B OR Junior/Senior status, 9 units in Education and Psych 100B.
Same as L33 Psych 4302
L92 APL 433 Complex Learning in Education
This course will focus on psychological research and theory pertaining to higher-order learning. Each week, we will delve into a different topic, such as memory, transfer of learning, analogical reasoning, conceptual change, metacognition, and problem solving. Prerequisite: junior standing or L12 304.
Same as L12 Educ 433
L92 APL 4330 Psychology of Language
This course surveys current research and theory in psycholinguistics, covering the biological bases, cognitive bases, and learning of language. We consider studies of normal children and adults, the performance of individuals with various types of language disorders, and computer simulations of language processes. Topics range from the perception and production of speech sounds to the managment of conversations. Each student will carry out an original research project on some aspect of psycholinguistics. Prereq: Ling 170D and Psych 100B
Same as L33 Psych 433
L92 APL 453 Sociology of Education
This course provides an overview of sociological theory and research on education in contemporary U.S. society. Drawing from sociological perspectives, it covers the implications of schools and schooling for social inequality, mobility, and group relations. It examines major theoretical perspectives on the purpose and social organization of mass education in the United States, and topics related to the organization and function of schools, access to educational resources, and group disparities in school experiences and outcomes.
Same as L12 Educ 453B
L92 APL 467 Grammar and Vocabulary Acquisition
This course examines theoretical and instructional implications of research on grammar and vocabulary acquisition. Topics include making form-meaning connections during language learning; developmental stages; the role of input and input processing; explicit and implicit methods of grammar instruction; pertinent factors in vocabulary acquisition, such a learning context and processing resource allocation; and comparisons of incidental and direct vocabulary instruction techniques. Major theories of language acquisition (e.g., nativism, emergentism) are critically examined in light of the research presented, and research findings are applied to instructional practices.
Same as L38 Span 467
L92 APL 4692 Reading Across Languages and Cultures: Theory, Research and Practice
The United Nations has declared that literacy is a fundamental human right. This course, which is taught in English, connects to the mission of UNESCO and examines the wide range of theoretical and research issues -- both historical and current -- related to reading and writing across languages and cultures. Literacy acquisition among second-language learners involves a number of variables, including both cognitive and social factors. Topics to be discussed include universal cognitive operations, individual learner differences, text types and literary forms, literacy and social power, and the extent to which reading and writing are interrelated. Students will discuss how to bridge scientific research in the laboratory to practice, and they will be involved in St. Louis community outreach projects with refugees and immigrants at the International Institute, where they will create and implement reading and writing activities driven by theory and empirical investigations. Students will take the theory and research they learn, and they will help meet the local reading and writing needs of a changing population with a variety of backgrounds, values and educational preparations. The course is required for the minor in applied linguistics, the PhD in applied linguistics, and the graduate certificate in language instruction. This course carries the Social and Behavioral Sciences attribute and can be taken for different majors, such as International and Area Studies and Educational Studies.
L92 APL 472 History of the English Language
Concepts and methods of linguistical study: comparative, historical, and descriptive. Application of methods to selected problems in the history of English. Contrastive analysis of excerpts from Old, Middle, and later English; sounds, meanings, syntax, and styles.
Same as L14 E Lit 472
L92 APL 481 History of Education in the United States
Examines education within the context of American social and intellectual history. Using a broad conception of education in the United States and a variety of readings in American culture and social history, the course focuses on such themes as the variety of institutions involved with education, including family, church, community, work place, and cultural agency; the ways relationships among those institutions have changed over time; the means individuals have used to acquire an education; and the values, ideas, and practices that have shaped American educational policy in different periods of our history.
Same as L12 Educ 481W
L92 APL 5501 Contemporary Issues in the Psychological Science of Learning
The purpose of this course is provide a vehicle for students to explore contemporary issues in the psychological science of learning. The general topic of the course will rotate so that different contemporary issues can be explored from semester to semester. Potential topics include motivation and emotion, error-correction and conceptual change, and higher-order learning. Regardless of the topic, the majority of the course will be structured around discussing primary and secondary research articles. The main product of the course will be a research proposal in which students will identify a question, situate it within existing theory/research, describe the methodology to answer the question, and discuss the predicted results. The goal of the course is to provide students with opportunities to practice evaluating research and theories, designing research, communicating ideas both orally and in writing, and providing constructive criticism. Prerequisite: Graduate standing or permission of the instructor.
Same as L12 Educ 5501
Credit 3 units.